Section 4 Key Terms - Section 4 Key Terms Chapter 8 Sexual...

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Section 4 Key TermsChapter 8Sexual Reproduction- the creation of offspring by the fusion of 2 haploid sex cells, forming a diploid zygoteAsexual Reproduction- the creation of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and eggCell Division- the reproduction of a cellChromosome- a gene-carrying structure found in the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellsChromatin- a complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomesHistones- small protein molecules associated with DNA and important in DNA packaging in the eukaryotic chromosomesNucleosome- the bead-like unit of DNA packaging in a eukaryotic cellGene- discrete unit of hereditary info consisting of specific nucleotide sequence in DNADNA- the genetic info responsible for heredity and for programming the production of an organism’s moleculesChromatid- either of the two strands into which a chromosome divides during mitosis.Sister Chromatids- 1 of 2 identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cellCentromere- the region of a duplicated chromosome where 2 sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosisCell Cycle- an ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from dividing parent cell until its own division into two cellsInterphase- a time when a cell’s metabolic activity is very high and the cell performs various functions within the organismoG1- a cell growsoS- continues to grow as it copies its chromosomesoG2- then grows more as it completes preparations for cell divisionoG0- cells exit interphase and do not divideMitotic Phase- the part of the cell cycle when the cell actually dividesoMitosis- where the nucleus and its contents divide and are evenly distributed to form two daughter nucleiProphase- the chromatin condenses to form structures visible with a light microscope and the mitotic spindle begin to form but nucleus still in tactMetaphase- all the cell’s duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles of the mitotic spindleAnaphase- beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes arrives at each of the two poles of the cellTelophase- daughter nuclei form at the 2 poles of a celloCytokinesis- when the cytoplasm is divided in twoApoptosis- the timely death of certain cells, triggered by certain genesCleavage Furrow- the first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cellMitotic Spindle- a football-shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosisCentrosome- material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell the gives rise to microtubules

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