Review Sheet for the Final

Review Sheet for the Final - Review Sheet for the Final I...

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Review Sheet for the Final I. Empire and the Way of Heaven 1. Qin dynasty: a. Unitary rule, one ruler: emperor b. Reasons for the fall of Qin: Oppression of punishment, group responsibility system Seduction of the people by reward, appeal to people’s greed Heaven Taxation Restrictions on people’s consumption No allowance for self-respect Did not encourage people to improve their own character No loyal body of officials to shore up the emperor *Failure to rule by the principles of humaneness and rightness. Can gain power through violence and force, but can’t keep it that way. 2. Han dynasty: a. Central government b. Earning popular support through Daoist rule c. Confucianism adopted as the state philosophy 3. The role of the emperor: a. Son of the heaven, supreme imperial power. b. Nonaction, seclusion, delegation of authority, impartiality. c. The well-being of the people is his first priority. d. He rules by humaneness and rightness, sets a good moral example. e. The emperor should have emotions according to different situation, and use emotion to transform and civilize his people. f. The emperor is responsible for keeping mankind in harmony with heaven and earth: To serve the basis of heaven, he conducts sacrifices and services to heaven and his ancestors, and promotes filial piety and brotherly affection; To serve the basis of earth, he encourages and participates in agriculture (symbolically); To serve the basis of man, he enlightens people with education and transforms them with rites and music. 4. Music and Rites a. Music: comes from heaven, within human nature. Proper music is tranquil, and means no anger. Music can inspire our emotions, and control our emotions. Music is the symbol of the emotional state of people and condition of government, and it can affect the people and government in turn. Music of a well-ruled state is peaceful and joyful, music of a state in confusion if resentful and angry, and music of a dying state is mournful and pensive.
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b. Rites: comes from the earth, and it brings order and distinction of heaven, earth, and mankind. Music and Rites are complementary to each other. 5. Concept of time a. The use of both solar and lunar calendar b. A system of cyclical signs for designating years, days, and hours: There are ten Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches, these two sets of signs were combined to form a cycle of 60 days, months, or years. c. Reign title: It is difficult to locate a certain year in history. They use particular ruler of a dynasty as a reference. 6. Cosmology a. Yin and yang: two primal forces or modes of creation. Yin and yang move in a circular fashion, and are complementary to each other. b. The five phases: wood, fire, earth, metal, water. I.Ancient Poetry 1. Book of Odes c. 4 sections: Airs of the states, Lesser Odes, Greater Odes, Hymns d. Formal aspects: Rhythm (4 character line, foot rhyme, repetition) Image (straight description, metaphor, inspiration) e. Confucian approach to poetry Confucius: 4 advantages of the Odes: stimulation/inspiration: make associations,
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