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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1 Aztecs -refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico , particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic period in Mesoamerican chronology .- Aztec culture and history is primarily known:- From archaeological evidence as it is found in excavations such as that of the renowned Templo Mayor in Mexico City and many others. -- From indigenous bark paper codices . --From eyewitness accounts by Spanish conquistadors such as Hernn Corts and Bernal Daz del Castillo . --And especially from 16th and 17th century descriptions of Aztec culture and history written by Spanish clergymen and literate Aztecs in the Spanish or Nahuatl language, such as the famous Florentine Codex compiled by the Franciscan monk Bernardino de Sahagn with the help of indigenous Aztec informant Magna Carta--latin for greek charter literally great paper- issued in 1215. Magna Carta was the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today. Magna Carta influenced the development of the common law and many constitutional documents, such as the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights , and is considered one of the most important legal documents in the history of democracy .- Magna Carta was originally written because of disagreements among Pope Innocent I I I , King John and the English barons about the rights of the King . Magna Carta required the King to renounce certain rights, respect certain legal procedures and accept that his will could be bound by the law .- In practice Magna Carta mostly did not limit the power of the King in the Middle Ages; by the time of the English Civil War however it had become an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was bound by the law. Olmec - The Olmec were an ancient Pre-Columbian people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico , roughly in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec . Their immediate cultural influence, however, extends far beyond this region. The Olmec flourished during the Formative (or Preclassic ) period, dating from 1200 BCE to about 400 BCE, and are believed to have been the progenitor civilization of later Mesoamerican civilizations matrilineal societies- Matrilineal societies are those societies in which descent is traced through mothers rather than through fathers. Matrilineal societies, property is often passed from mothers to daughters and the custom of matrilocal residence may be practiced....
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