Lecture20_SolarActivityNSolarWind

Lecture20_SolarActivityNSolarWind - The Solar Activity CME...

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The Solar Activity
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CME vs. Flares CMEs usually happen with flares, which are much ho’er (up to 10 Million K, some>mes ho?er than sun’s core) Flares produce many more X-­‐rays and radio waves CMEs produce more energe5c par>cles (mostly protons -­‐ SEPs) through shock waves
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Coronal Mass Ejections : Coronal Mass Ejections are among the most powerful active events on the Sun. • CMEs jettison a huge volume of trapped plasma (about 10 billion tons, roughly 0.1 the coronal mass) • During peak solar activity, 2-3 CMEs occur every day on average. • A special type of CME is a called a ‘halo event’. These occur when the CME is directed right at the Earth .
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Solar flares and the Magne>c Field Flares occur in regions of rapid magnetic field re-alignment. 1. Coronal loop 2. Field begins to inflate 3. Field twists as sunspots move at different speeds due to differen>al rota>on 4. Field begins to pinch inwards (field lines of opposite sign a?ract) 5. Magne>c field breaks due to shear forces 6. Plasma blob is accelerated upward and addi>onal plasma is accelerated back towards the chromosphere
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Sunspot Forma>on and Solar Flare Magne>c Reconnec>on and Solar Flares
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The 11 Year Cycle Corona X-­‐ray Emissions Magne>c Field Map
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Classification of Solar Flares: GOES satellite at looks light intensity between 0.1 – 0.8 nm and 0.5 – 4 nm Class Peak Intensity (W/m 2 ) between 0.1 and 0.8 nm
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