Week 1 - Characterization of Organic Solids and Liquids by...

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Characterization of Organic Solids and Liquids by Elemental Analysis, Mass Spectrometry, Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Infrared Spectroscopy Mark Gumapas September 13, 2007 Methods and Background The purpose of this experiment is to determine the structures of unknown organic solids and liquids. To carry out the experiment, different tests must be done to find out the defining characteristics of each solid and liquid. These tests include elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, melting point for the solid, boiling point for the liquid, and infrared spectroscopy. Elemental analysis is used to determine the empirical and molecular formula of the unknowns given the relative abundances of the elements. Knowing the empirical formula with the given molecular mass gives way to determining the molecular formula of the unknown. When a formula is found, the structure is the next thing to be determined. To fully identify the structure, the index of hydrogen deficiency (IHD) must be found to help determine the structure of the unknown substance. The IHD is used to help identify the number of double bonds, triple bonds, and rings in the structure by calculating the degree of unsaturations in comparison with the molecule were it saturated. Since the actual structure of the molecule is still unknown, further tests must be taken to finalize the structure of the unknown liquid and solid. This includes the use of Infrared Spectroscopy to determine the different functional groups found in the molecule. Since there is a liquid and a solid, we must get a separate infrared reading from the solid and the liquid. For each infrared reading, the transmittance received is unique to each functional group because of the distinctive vibration each bond gives. To finalize the results of our tests and observations that the unknown substances gives, melting and boiling point tests are used to determine the true structure of the liquid and the solid. The melting point and boiling point that are found experimentally are then
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Week 1 - Characterization of Organic Solids and Liquids by...

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