{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Week 1 - Characterization of Organic Solids and Liquids by...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Characterization of Organic Solids and Liquids by Elemental Analysis, Mass Spectrometry, Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Infrared Spectroscopy Mark Gumapas September 13, 2007 Methods and Background The purpose of this experiment is to determine the structures of unknown organic solids and liquids. To carry out the experiment, different tests must be done to find out the defining characteristics of each solid and liquid. These tests include elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, melting point for the solid, boiling point for the liquid, and infrared spectroscopy. Elemental analysis is used to determine the empirical and molecular formula of the unknowns given the relative abundances of the elements. Knowing the empirical formula with the given molecular mass gives way to determining the molecular formula of the unknown. When a formula is found, the structure is the next thing to be determined. To fully identify the structure, the index of hydrogen deficiency (IHD) must be found to help determine the structure of the unknown substance. The IHD is used to help identify the number of double bonds, triple bonds, and rings in the structure by calculating the degree of unsaturations in comparison with the molecule were it saturated. Since the actual structure of the molecule is still unknown, further tests must be taken to finalize the structure of the unknown liquid and solid. This includes the use of Infrared Spectroscopy to determine the different functional groups found in the molecule. Since there is a liquid and a solid, we must get a separate infrared reading from the solid and the liquid. For each infrared reading, the transmittance received is unique to each functional group because of the distinctive vibration each bond gives. To finalize the results of our tests and observations that the unknown substances gives, melting and boiling point tests are used to determine the true structure of the liquid and the solid.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern