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Week 3 - Separation of Liquids by Simple Distillation...

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Separation of Liquids by Simple Distillation. Analysis of Separation Efficacy by Constructing a Volume vs. Temperature Graph and Analyzing Distillates by Gas- Liquid Chromatography Mark Gumapas September 27, 2007 Methods and Background The purpose of this lab is to successfully distill a solution of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate, and take a gas-liquid chromatography of three different fractions of the distilled solution at different temperatures. From the distillation, an analysis of the volume of distilled liquid compared to the temperature of the liquid can be recorded. Ethyl Acetate Butyl Acetate The process of distillation is used to separate a mixture of components through condensation and their differences in volatility. When the liquid mixture becomes vapor, assuming that all of the liquid becomes vapor, then there should be no change in composition, but during that period of vaporization, the composition of the more volatile component increases, while that of the less volatile liquid decreases. As the more volatile liquid gets vaporized first, as the temperature of the solution increases, then the composition of the less volatile liquid will begin to condense and vaporize. Each step of the vaporization/condensation process results in a different fraction of separation of the mixture. The more fractions that are used, the better the opportunity is to completely separate the two substances in the mixture. In the fractions of samples taken, the different The other method used in this experiment was the Gas-Liquid chromatography (GLC). The gas liquid chromatography is used to separate the chemicals found in a complex sample. Like the other chromatographies we performed, this too also has a mobile and stationary phase, but it is not as hands on as the other two experiments. In this chromatography, the mobile and stationary phases are done for you from the sample that was acquired through the distillation process. When a sample of the distilled substance is injected into the GLC using a microsyringe, it is immediately vaporized and pushed through a column by a flowing inert gas known as the carrier gas. This carrier gas is the mobile phase of the chromatography. The column that it is carried through contains the stationary phase; which is a solid support that has been coated with a viscous, high-boiling liquid. What we want out of the GLC is the molar percentage of each component out of the mixture. However, the GLC does not provide us with this information, and it provides us with the thermal conductivity of each substance. To correct this, each substance has a molar factor that must be applied to it so that we get the actual molar percentage in each.
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Experimental Procedure
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