Chapter 7 Study Guide

Chapter 7 Study Guide - Chapter 7: Early Experiences and...

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Chapter 7: Early Experiences and Later Life Primacy Primacy – The idea that early experiences can significantly shape later development. Since the studies of deprivation in orphanages, in poverty, or by parents are not set up with experimental and control conditions, it is not possible to conclude with certainty that any differences between these and other groups of children in later life are caused by a particular form of deprivation that the children experienced during infancy and early childhood. Since there is a lack of a control in these experiments, it is possible that some covarying factor is the real cause of the observed differences. Modifying the impact of early experience 2 factors can modify the impact of early experience: 1. Changes in the environment ; Positive changes (supportive school environment or a community-based support network) or negative changes (the outbreak of war or the death of a parent)…Either can create discontinuities in children’s experiences 2. Bio-social-behavioral shifts ; Can reorganize physical and psychological functions into qualitatively new patterns that change the way children experience their environment. Factors include the acquisition of language, new cognitive capacities, and a new relationship with the social world. Ex.: a placid baby who takes little interest in the world around him may suddenly display enormous curiosity and energy once he begins to walk. Transactional Models Transactional model – models of development that trace the ways in which the characteristics of the child and the characteristics of the child’s environment interact across time (“transact”) to determine developmental outcomes. Ex.: One characteristic that helps children survive in extremely impoverished communities is temperament. Children that are fussy and demanding have higher survival rates than those who are “easy” and have more quiet dispositions. Since they emphasize the changing child, they help us to understand how experience at one point in time may have a dramatically different effect than the same experience at another point in time Continuity and Discontinuity Continuity – when a pattern tends to remain consistent throughout development. Sroufe: findings that help support continuity Children judged as securely attached at 12 months of age are assessed at 3 ½ to be more curious, play more effectively with their agemates, and have better relationships with their teachers than do children who were insecurely attached as infants When assessed at age 10 and again at age 15, those who had been securely attached as infants were more skillful socially, formed more friendships, displayed more self-confidence, and were more open in expressing their feelilngs.
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Waters: findings that support and contradict continuity Did a 20-year study of attachment over time Found that a minority of the individuals did not demonstrate continuity of
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Chapter 7 Study Guide - Chapter 7: Early Experiences and...

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