phsychology study guide 8

phsychology study guide 8 - PSYCH. STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 8...

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PSYCH. STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 8 Prelinguistic Communication **Look at chart attached to chapter 8 study guide, which ranges from 1 week- 24 months The Puzzle of Language Development 1. The problem of reference: each word refers to something Words name real or imagined objects and relationships in the world We must somehow figure out that the sound we hear refers to something in the ongoing flow of experience indicating an actual object, event, or feeling George Miller (1991) study with a parent pointing out different features of a rabbit, Harvey, to a child 2. The problem of grammar: the rules for sequencing words in a sentence and the ordering of parts of words for a particular language Multiword utterances have some grasp of grammatical rules because the child learns from the errors she makes when stringing words together Recursion: the embedding of sentences within each other Children learn recursion not by being taught, it is a fundamental capacity that children acquire through experience Four Subsystems of Language 1. Sounds: “Children’s understanding of their language’s sound system proceeds unevenly”: sometimes children find a specific sound that is especially difficult for them to master, even after they undertand many words that employ that sound Morpheme: smallest unit of meaning in the words of language Morphemes may be a whole word or only a part of a word (example: transplanted has three morphemes—trans, plant, ed) We rarely stop to think about each part of a word, but every child must acquire the ability to decipher and reproduce intricate interweaving of sound and meaning 2. Words: Word formation is a joint effort because neither the adult nor the child really knows what the other is saying Each tries to gather in a little meaning by supposing that the other’s utterance fits a particular sound pattern that corresponds to a particular meaning Joint effort occurs when they result in something common, which is a word they can both understand The earliest vocabulary Productive vocabulary: children’s ability to PRODUCE words
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NOTE: children tend to produce their first comprehensible words around their first birthday Receptive vocabulary: vocabulary children UNDERSTAND NOTE: this vocabulary is considerably larger than their productive vocabulary Nouns make up a large proportion of the early vocabularies 1 st words are closely linked to actions that children can accomplish with the things name OR objects that change and move (capture the child’s attention) Problems of reference Overextensions: common for young children t use a single label in circumstances in which adults use many (example: calling all men “daddy”) Underextensions: children use words in a narrower way than adults do (example: “bottle” used not as ALL bottles, but a child’s specific bottle) Levels of abstraction: children must learn to deal with the fact that several words can be used to refer to the same object (example:
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 1630 taught by Professor Hoover-dempsey during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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phsychology study guide 8 - PSYCH. STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 8...

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