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CHAPTER 11 STUDY GUIDE Influence of Culture - Whiting (1975): illustrate how difference in family life shape the development of children by observing differences in child rearing practices in six diverse locales around the world o Families differ in many ways that affect the child’s life o Families also change in response to social and economic changes in society - Concluded that—children are ACTIVE AGENTS that interpret, adapt to, and even resist the broader systems and institutions with which they interact Influence of Family Structures/Dynamics - Family: shared by ancestry (blood relations), shared residence, and/or martial ties - Family structure: how the family is organized o Nuclear family : husband, wife, and their immediate offspring Considered the “product of modern society”—Phillipe Aries o Extended family : parents and children, as well as other kid, such as grandparents/cousins/nieces/nephews/etc. Make up about 4% of all families in the U.S. Born from cultural tradition and economic hardship (high population of Hispanics and Africans) o Single-parent families : one parent who heads the family alone, typically the mom About 50% of all children in the U.S. will spend some of their childhood in a single-parent home - Family dynamics: how families function, specifically, patterns of interaction and communication among members o Studies show that children of single-parent families report a wide variety of social, behavioral, and academic problems o Weitoff (2003): conducted a study in Sweden comparing children from one-parent families to children from two-parent families Found socioeconomic differences were the most important factor Also, concluded that children from single-parent families were at higher risk for a variety of problems o (2001): primarily studied African American (66%) families in the U.S. with single-mothers, most having supportive extended families and had never been married They fund no difference between child of one-parent and two- parent families in social skills or conflict management styles Because of their extended family and the mothers never went through a divorce, the children did not experience any emotionally traumatic events The Family as Context for Development - Parenting styles and family dynamics: o Baumrind (1971,1980): studied the developmental consequences of
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parenting styles Found that 77% of ALL families fit into one of three parenting styles: Authoritarian, Authoritative, and Permissive o Authoritarian Parenting Style : Parents: try to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of their children according to a set traditional standard Dimensions: Demanding and controlling Favor punitive methods over reasoning Stress obedience over independence Children: other-directed, lack social competence, lack curiosity, withdrawn o Authoritative Parenting Style : Parents: know they have more knowledge, skill, control, and power
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