Chapter 12 outline

Chapter 12 outline - Chapter 12 Cognitive and Biological...

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Chapter 12: Cognitive and Biological Attainments of Middle Childhood General Emerging developments that cause adults to expect qualitatively more “grown-up” behavior and thinking from children around age 6: Arise from a combo of ecological circumstances, cultural traditions, and their observations of how well their children cope with new demands Examples (across cultures): o Children are strong and agile enough to catch a runaway goat or carry their younger siblings on their hips o They know not to let a baby crawl near an open fire o Can wait for the school bus without wandering off o Can sometimes sit still for several hours at a time while adults attempt to instruct them o Starting to be able to do chores in an acceptable manner Children can perform tasks independently, formulate goals, and resist the temptation to abandon them Biological Development What height and weight are determined by : Genetic factors Biological factors o Height: Variations in the height and rate of growth typical of different populations that undergo changes in living conditions Nutrition Poor children = less access to nutritious food and good health care, usually smaller Health Growth slows during illnesses, even mild ones When nutritional intake is inadequate, children never catch up and their growth is stunted o Weight: Quantity and quality of food available Motor skills development Children become stronger and more agile Better balance Run faster, throw further and more accurately, catch better, jump further and higher Need practice on many things such as kicking and throwing Boys o Stronger o Slightly advanced in motor abilities that require power and force o Slightly greater muscle mass o Bigger
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Girls o More agile o Excel in fine motor skills (drawing, writing) o Excel in gross motor skills that combine balance and foot movement (skipping, hopping, skills needed for gymnastics) Brain development Continued myelination Synaptic pruning o The process by with nonfunctional synapses die off o Continues for late-maturing areas of the brain o Reducing the density of synapses among neurons o More stable connections found among remaining neurons Changes in EEG/theta and alpha activity o Amounts of theta and alpha activity are about equal o Thereafter, theta activity (engaged attention) dominates EEG coherence o The synchronization of electrical activity in different areas of the brain increases significantly o Reflects the fact different parts of the brain function more effectively as coordinated systems o Evidence of increased coordination between the electrical activity of the frontal lobes and the electrical activity in other parts of the brain New cognitive skills: o Permits the frontal lobes to coordinate the activities of other brain centers in a qualitatively more complex way Children can better control their attention Form explicit plans Engage in self-reflection
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 1630 taught by Professor Hoover-dempsey during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Chapter 12 outline - Chapter 12 Cognitive and Biological...

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