Music 111: Culture of the Far East Asia E-mic (Phenemic) : How people within their own country think of their culture vs. E-tic (Phenetic) : Outsiders’ perspective Shelemay – Framework that can be used to describe music; Standardizes music throughout the world Timbre – Acoustical properties of the instrument itself based on the overtones Pitch – Based on frequency/vibration Duration – Rhythm and meter Setting – Where the music takes place Significance – Meaning behind the music and how it affects people Listening ex. Silk and Bamboo (Sizho) “Autumn moon over Han Palace” Yang qin (hammered dulcimer) Erhu (bowed luk) Pipa (plucked luk) Dongxia (bamboo flute) Zhou Jie lun (Jay Chou) Mandarin Chinese “Second year third class” Ping Pong sound Important Trading Networks Silk Road – Trading route system • Included the exchange of musical instruments • Significant to China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Rome… Extension of Mongol Empire (1206-1368) • Led to widespread exchange of information The Persian Santur Improvisation on melodic mode Mahur (same as the major scale) Accompanied by zarb drum goblet shaped drum [6 beats] Chordophones – 1. Lutes 2. Zithers * Does not have a neck * Often in a shape of trapezoid * Striking with a hammer or plucking a string 1
The North Indian Santoor Rag Jogiya played at Daybreak for yogi’s doing meditation Shiu Kumar Sharma (snatoor) accompanied by tabla drum The Chinese Yangqin Xiu hebao (Embroidered Purse) Similar techniques with other instruments above Satar • Bowed instrument • From Turkey – here found in Xinjiang • China amongst the Uygur • “Woy Bala” Does not get played by hand Press against the string Strings underneath the main string Sympathetic string gives instrument a rich quality Tar – Frame drum often accompanied by satar North Indian Sarangi • Rag Nat Bhairon by Sultan Khan 1. Alap – Opening of solo improvisation 2. Composition accompanied by tabla (talla) • Do not push the strings against the neck Sliding of the strings • Most vocal instrument • Sympathetic strings produce rich sound due to vibration Indus Valley • Beginning of large settlements and civilization (3,000 B.C.~18,000 B.C.) • Period of cultural contact • Cave paintings, pottery… • Ruins of Moheno Daro • Invasions of Aryans * Brought new religion and language * Language of Sankrit – mostly Greek and Latin * Vedic religion formed by Vedas now called Hinduism • Hindu religion * Idea of music being spiritual (representing the sound of God Ned Bhramin) * Sound transmitted through meditation * Most know: Om 2
Hindustani Classical Music Music considered as sacred sound Shisya parampara System of training • Guru – Purely religious teachers • Gharana – Schools maintained by family lineages (stylistic schools) • Each guru is part of gharana traditions • Would live with teachers and become an errand boy for several years • Religious devotion
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