ASIA212Varley

For the left wing in japan the united states was the

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Unformatted text preview: overy of prehistoric Jòmon remains at Òmori in the outskirts of Tokyo, made a detailed study of Japanese domestic architecture about this time, and in 1885 published Japanese Homes and Their Surroundings, a text that over the years has gone through many printings. Styles of Japanese architecture were also introduced at fairs and exhibitions in the late nineteenth century, most notably in the display prepared for the World’s Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1892, which commemorated the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America. Designed and constructed by the Japanese themselves, the Chicago display was modeled loosely on the Phoenix Hall of the eleventh-century Byòdòin Temple at Uji. The original Phoenix Hall consists of a central hall with galleries extending like wings to the right and left (and terminating in open pavilions) and like a bird’s body and tail to the rear. At Chicago the rear gallery was eliminated and the pavilions were enclosed. This created an arrangement of three linked structures of extremely graceful design, situated on raised platform floors and covered with gently sloping and deeply recessed tile roofs. The interior of each structure was designed and decorated to represent a different period of domestic styling in Japanese history: Fujiwara, Ashikaga, and Tokugawa. The Japanese display at the 1892 World’s Columbian Exposition, called the Phoenix Villa, was particularly striking in contrast to the oppressively heavy type of architecture adopted for the general exhibition halls, which were “cast in the pure classic, or Neo-classic style, employ- 330 Culture in the Present Age ing the familiar design vocabulary of columns, entablatures, arches, vaults and domes, the group unified by a gigantic architectural order sixty feet in height.”31 Although architects throughout the country visited and were impressed by the Phoenix Villa, it was the Chicago School, including Frank Lloyd Wright, that benefited most from study of this excellent, near-at-hand model of...
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