NOTES BY MISS MASHIAT[392].docx - Lecture-7 The Beginning...

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Lecture-7 The Beginning of Modern Science and Philosophy RENAISSANCE HUMANISM Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. Francesco Petrarca, who was born in 1304, is known as the first great humanist in history; in fact, he is the father of humanism. Renaissance humanism was a response to the utilitarian approach and what came to be depicted as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. Renaissance humanism is a retronym used to distinguish it from later humanist developments. Renaissance humanism was used to differentiate the development of humanis m during the Renaissance era from the earlier ones. Classical humanism was developed to respond to the utilitarian approach associated with the medieval scholars. Humanism was a unique program meant to revive moral philosophy, literary legacy, and cultural legacy of the classical antiquity. Renaissance humanism had a focus on individualism, the concern of human potential and achievement. It was a huge change to switch from a religion based society in the Middle Ages to a people based society in the Renaissance . During the Renaissance , humanism effected political philosophy, art and religious change. First, political philosophy was severely changed during the Renaissance due to humanism . Humanism was important during the Renaissance because it was a time when people changed how they thought about humanity, art and philosophy. René Descartes Born on March 31 La Haye, France. René Descartes (1596–1650) was truly a Renaissance man; at one time or another, he was a soldier, mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and psychologist. In addition, he was a man of the world who enjoyed gambling, dancing, and adventure. But he was also an intensely private person who preferred solitude and avoided emotional attachments with people. Descartes’s Search for Philosophical Truth Descartes’s method of self-exploration was productive almost immediately. Descartes (1637/1956) summarized his four rules for attaining certainty in any area: The first rule was never to accept anything as true unless I recognized it to be evidently as such: that is, carefully to avoid all precipitation and prejudgment, and to include nothing in my conclusions unless it presented itself so clearly and distinctly to my mind that there was no reason or occasion to doubt it. The second was to History and Perspective BS Psychology “Semester 1“ Comsats University Islamabad Lecturer: Syeda Mashiyat E Zahra Kazmi
divide each of the difficulties which I encountered into as many parts as possible, and as might be required for an easier solution. The third was to think in an orderly fashion, beginning with the things which were simplest and easiest to understand, and gradually and by degrees reaching toward a more complex knowledge, even treating, as though ordered, materials which were not necessarily so. The

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