Exam2Key_05

Exam2Key_05 - 1. Human virus A. Simian virus B. Simian...

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1. Human virus A. Simian virus B. Simian virus C. Any cluster that includes ONLY SIV or ONLY HIV strains (Multiple options). D. Yes: a. There are several places on the tree where different HIV and SIV strains have a common ancestor. b. The inter-digitation of different strains of HIV with SIV within the clusters suggests that there have been multiple transfers. c. If there were not multiple transfers, you would expect to see only SIV or HIV strains in different clusters (only host specific clusters). Instead, there are multiple instances where an HIV strain is more closely related to an SIV strain. This indicates that they had a recent common ancestor, which indicates that there have been multiple transfers. d. There is evidence in that several strains of HIV are more similar to SIV strains than other HIV strains. The HIV strains are not in host-specific clusters indicating that there has not been only one transfer. Partial credit was awarded only for part E if the answer was YES but: Explanation was not clear (-2) Explanation was incorrect (-3) No credit was awarded if the answer was NO 2. Full credit was awarded if the answer included any of the four main points discussed in the book (Myths and Facts, p.60-61). Some examples: Treatment will allow infected people to improve in health and thus enable them to work. This will help lowering the economical costs where the number of infected people is very high (Moral and social implications). Denying treatment neglects those that are already infected. It is a moral atrocity to deny treatment to infected people (Moral and social implications). If people know that treatment is available they are more likely to get tested which in turn will help reduce the stigma and improve prevention (Synergy between prevention and treatment). Part of prevention requires getting tested to know your status. People have little incentive for testing if they know that treatment is not available. However, if treatment is available, people will have more incentive to get tested (Synergy between prevention and treatment).
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Treatment is necessary because prevention will not help the millions of infected people already infected (Limits to the efficacy of prevention programs). Because social and/or cultural factors in certain countries prevention campaigns have limited success, therefore, treatment is necessary (Limits to the efficacy of prevention programs). Treatment adds political power to the prevention movement by putting a fare -someone alive who otherwise wouldn’t be- where there would otherwise only be statistics -people who didn’t get infected but might have (Treatment as a political power). Treatment lowers the viral load, which lowers the probability of HIV transmission and
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Exam2Key_05 - 1. Human virus A. Simian virus B. Simian...

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