Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Transformations in Europe,...

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Chapter 16 – Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750Culture and Ideas– theological controversies broke religious unitycontributed toviolent wars; huge witch scare = power of Christian beliefs-increased influence of Greco-Roman ideas among better-educated people, butothers challenged authority of ancients; new model of solar system, etc =others challenged traditional social/political sys-printing press enhanced the impact of all transformationsReligious Reformation – 1500,papacy(central gov’t of Latin Christianity) wassimultaneously gaining stature and suffering from corruption/dissent (scandal)oLarger donations and tax receiptsambitious construction projectsSt. Peter’s Basilica in Rome –glorified God, displayed skill, enhancedstanding of papacy (needed refined taste/$$$)Indulgence– forgiveness of punishment for past sins, granted bychurch authorities as reward for pious act or making a donation (helpfunded Basilica)Martin Luther was upset that church emphasized money over faithoProtestant Reformation– Luther insisted only way to salvation was throughfaith in Jesus, must be based on Bible, not authority of popeMartin Luther gained support of Germans b/c he used the printingpress and didn’t want to pay to beautify RomeJohn Calvin – salvation was a predestined gift from God, elected owngov’t committees, synods, simplicity in social livesSuccesses and failures also due to political/social issues thatencouraged people to join themProtestants didn’t challenge male dominance, but rejected celibacyoCatholic ReformationDistinguished proper Catholic doctrines, reaffirmed supremacy ofpope, bishops must live in diocese, which had to have a theologicalseminary to train priestsJesuits (Ignatius of Loyola founded in 1540) – missionaries, won backsome supportersowars of religion: fighting over religious/secular issues, persecution 1648Traditional Thinking and Witch-HuntsoWitch-huntsillustrate common beliefs and heritage of Catholic/Protestantbeliefs that were still powerful in EuropeoFolklore mixed with biblical teachings of Christian + Jewish scriptureoBelieved in supernatural causes of natural eventsoWomen were the suspects: if they weren’t under control of a man they’d turnto evil, b/c of close relation w/ birthing, tending animals and sick, it was goingto be their fault if the they diedoReflect larger social climate of early modern Europe – social tensions, ruralpoverty, environmental strainsThe Scientific RevolutionoGreco-Roman and Bible were more trusted guides to natural world
oAristotle – greatest authority on physics, Pythagoras – perfect circlesoScientific Revolution– workings of universe can be explained naturallyNicholas Copernicus: orbits around sun reduces # of orbitsDelayed publication of heliocentric universe theoryGalileo – disproved perfection of spheres, orbitsSaid that God’s truth was revealed more perfectly in nature

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Term
Spring
Professor
Elliot
Tags
World History, Protestant Reformation, mutually beneficial alliances, w absolutist rulers, business w gov t, b c enviro problems

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