CHAPTER 7 DIVERSITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS: AMBORELLALES, NYMPHAEALES, AUSTROBAILEYALES, MAGNOLIIDS, CERATOPHYLLALES, AND MONOCOTS REVIEW QUESTIONS GENERAL 1. What is the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system of classification and what ranking does it utilize? 2. What are the major groups of “basal” angiosperms? 3. Why have the traditional “dicots” been abandoned as a taxonomic group? 4. What is a floral formula? What are the symbols used in floral formulas? a) A shorthand used to summarize the number and fusion of floral parts. b) P=Perianth parts; K=calyx; C=corolla; A=androecium; G=gynoecium. 5. What is a floral diagram and what does it represent? 6. Name the family and species of what is currently thought to represent the most basal lineage of angiosperms. 7. Name the diagnostic characteristics of the Amborellaceae. Do these necessarily represent ancestral angiosperm features? a) Vessel-less, evergreen shrubs with unisexual flowers having an undifferentiated, spiral perianth, numerous, laminar stamens, and an apocarpous, apically-open gynoecium, with 1-ovuled carpels. b) Not all may represent ancestral features. 8. How does the Nymphaeales compare with the Amborellaceae in: plant habit, flower sex, perianth arrangement, stamen number and type, gynoecial fusion type, and ovary position? 9. What anatomical feature is characteristic of the family Illiciaceae? How is this family different from and similar to the Amborellaceae and Nymphaeales? a) Have ethereal oil cells. b) The Illiciaceae are distinctive in being evergreen trees or shrubs having aromatic oil cells, with glabrous, spiral, pellucid-punctate, exstipulate leaves, the flowers with numerous, spiral tepals (outer sepal-like, inner petal-like), few- numerous stamens, and few-numerous, one-seeded, apocarpous pistils in a single whorl, the fruit a follicetum.