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botany 301 study guide answers.docx - Why study plants?...

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Why study plants?
Carbohydrates– simple sugars polymerize to formpolysaccharidesComplex Carbohydrates-Polysaccharides– hundreds of monosaccharides make up a polymer,celluloseplant cell walls,chitin– exoskeleton of insects, cell walls of fungi,starch– plantenergy storage,glycogen– animal and fungi energy storageTriglyceridesmay beSaturated– no double bonds in fatty acids; tight fit leads to solid form at room tempUnsaturated– double bonds in fatty acids lead to fluid condition at room temperatureKink= double bonds; reduces tight packing = results in oilCis fatty acids– are common in nature and are converted to trans fatty acids during hydrogenation;hydrogens on same side of bondsSometrans fatty acidsoccur naturally in animal products; C H on opposite sides of bondWaxesform water-proof covering of aerial plant parts, esters of long chain alcohols with long-chain fattyacidsAmino acidsare the building blocks ofproteinsLevels of protein structure-Primary- seq. of a.a.’s, peptide bonds, covalent bonds between N & H-Secondary– alpha-helix or beta-pleated sheet, H bonds-Tertiary– folding to globular structure, disulfide, H bonds
-Quaternary– combination of 2+ tertiary subunits, covalent, H bondsSecondary compounds-often for defense, pollinator attraction-Alkaloids– toxic usually bitter, contain N, -ine endingoCaffeine, morphine, nicotine, atropine, scopolamineAtropine in HistoryTheophrastus -> atropine from mandrake-Treat wounds, insomnia, gout, aphrodisiac

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Term
Fall
Professor
DarrellL.Ray
Tags
atropine

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