Nomenclature and Properties of AlcoholsPrimary alcoholsIn a primary (1°) alcohol, the carbon which carries the -OH group is onlyattached to one alkyl group. Some examples of primary alcohols include:Notice that it doesn't matter how complicated the attached alkyl group is. Ineach case, there is only one linkage to an alkyl group from the CH2 groupholding the -OH group. There is an exception to this. Methanol, CH3OH, iscounted as a primary alcohol even though there are no alkyl groups attachedto the carbon with the -OH group on it.Secondary alcoholsIn a secondary (2°) alcohol, the carbon with the -OH group attached is joineddirectly to two alkyl groups, which may be the same or different. Examples:Tertiary alcoholsIn a tertiary (3°) alcohol, the carbon atom holding the -OH group is attacheddirectly to three alkyl groups, which may be any combination of the same ordifferent groups. Examples:IUPAC Rules on Nomenclature1.Find the longest chain containing the hydroxy group (OH). If there isa chain with more carbons than the one containing the OH group itwill be named as a substituent.2.
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4.When multiple -OH groups are on the cyclic structure, number thecarbons on which the -OH groups reside.5.Remove the finalefrom the parent alkane chain and add -ol. Whenmultiple alcohols are present usedi, tri,et.c before theol,afterthe parent name. ex. 2,3-hexandiol.If a carbonyl group is present,the -OH group is named with the prefix "hydroxy," with the carbonylgroup attached to the parent chain name so that it ends with -alor-one.ExamplesEthane: CH3CH3----->Ethanol:(the alcohol found in beer, wine and other consumed sprits)Secondary alcohol:2-propanolOther functional groups on an alcohol:3-bromo-2-pentanolCyclic alcohol (two -OH groups):cyclohexan-1,4-diolOther functional group on the cyclic structure:3-hexeneol (thealkene is inboldand indicated by numbering the carbon closest to thealcohol)A complex alcohol:4-ethyl-3hexanol (the parent chain is in red andthe substituent is in blue)In the IUPAC system of nomenclature, functional groups are normallydesignated in one of two ways. The presence of the function may beindicated by a characteristic suffix and a location number. This is common forthe carbon-carbon double and triple bonds which have the respectivesuffixes -eneand -yne. Halogens, on the other hand, do not have a suffixand are named as substituents, for example (CH3)2C=CHCHClCH3is 4-chloro-2-methyl-2-pentene.