Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and Nitriles.docx -...

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Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and NitrilesCarboxylic Acids, RCO2HThe IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes. The–eendingis removed from the name of the parent chain and is replaced-anoic acid. Since a carboxylicacid group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is always is given the #1 locationposition in numbering and it is not necessary to include it in the name.Many carboxylic acids are called by the common names. These names were chosen by chemiststo usually describe a source of where the compound is found. In common names of aldehydes,carbon atoms near the carboxyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacentto the carbonyl function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on.Example (Common Names Are in Red)Naming carboxyl groups added to a ringWhen a carboxyl group is added to a ring the suffix-carboxylic acidis added to the name of thecyclic compound. The ring carbon attached to the carboxyl group is given the #1 locationnumber.
The acid with the carboxyl group attached directly to a benzene ring is called benzoic acid(C6H5COOH).Naming carboxylatesSalts of carboxylic acids are named by writing the name of the cation followed by the name ofthe acid with the–ic acidending replaced by an–ateending. This is true for both the IUPAC andCommon nomenclature systems.Naming carboxylic acids which contain other functional groupsCarboxylic acids are given the highest nomenclature priority by the IUPAC system. This meansthat the carboxyl group is given the lowest possible location number and the appropriatenomenclature suffix is included. In the case of molecules containing carboxylic acid and alcoholfunctional groups the OH is named as a hydroxyl substituent. However, thelin hydroxyl isgenerally removed.In the case of molecules containing a carboxylic acid and aldehydes and/or ketones functionalgroups the carbonyl is named as a "Oxo" substituent.In the case of molecules containing a carboxylic acid an amine functional group the amine isnamed as an "amino" substituent.
When carboxylic acids are included with an alkene the following order is followed:(Location number of the alkene)-(Prefix name for the longest carbon chain minus the-ane ending)-(an –enoic acid ending to indicate the presence of an alkene andcarboxylic acid)Remember that the carboxylic acid has priority so it should get the lowest possible locationnumber. Also, remember that cis/tran or E/Z nomenclature for the alkene needs to be included ifnecessary.

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Carboxylic acid, carboxyl group, Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids

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