1001 Lecture 1 rev RWM 2 12-1

1500 bcebeatengold exampleofrepoussbeaten

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Unformatted text preview: e 1830s Lithography: Printmaking technique using litho crayons on fine­grained Bavarian limestone; gum arabic and acid as fixative, stone is wetted and greasy ink is applied which is repelled by the water in the blank areas Photography produced initially unique images (Daguerreotypes), but by the middle of the century, photographic negatives came to be used that allowed for an unlimited number of identical prints (reproductions) from a given negative The invention of photography posed an unprecedented challenge for the art world and the self­definition of artists Lithography Lithography Lithography Lithography Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834, 1834, lithograph • Note: lithography describes the printmaking technique; a lithograph is print produced by means of the lithographic process Henri de Toulouse­Lautrec, Jane Avril, ca. 1893, lithograph printed in five colors (poster) Photography Photography Edward Weston, Pepper #30, 1930, gelatin­silver print Tim MacPherson, Pregnant Boy from a United Way Teen Pregnancy Prevention Campaign, color photograph, 2008 (advertisement/poster) Sculpture Sculpture Media: Cast metal: bronze, iron, rarely precious metals (e.g. silver or gold) See discussion of Lost­Wax Casting Method Stone: marble, granite, etc. Wood (oak, chestnut, etc.) Direct carving typically involves stone or wood (unique works of art) Mixed Media Sculpture TRADITIONAL SCULPTURAL METHODS TRADITIONAL SCULPTURAL METHODS SUBTRACTIVE (STONE, WOOD, IVORY) ADDITIVE (CLAY, BRONZE, PLASTER, WAX) Direct Carving: Marble Direct Carving: Marble Michelangelo Buonarroti, Awakening Slave, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Bound Slave, 1530­1534, marble 1513­1516, marble • For the unfinished tomb of Pope Julius II Sculpture Sculpture The Riace Warriors, 460­450 B.C., Auguste Rodin, The Thinker (Le Penseur), design ca. 1880 bronze, silver teeth and eyelashes, copper lips and nipples (cast ca. 1910), bronze Lost­Wax (Cire Perdu) Casting Lost­Wax (Cire Perdu) Casting Method Lost­Wax (Cire Perdu) Casting Method Lost­Wax (Cire Perdu) Casting Method Method specific to cast metal, especially bronze A three­dimensional positive figure is modeled in wax The wax figure is then immersed in a clay investment mould Upon firing the clay, the wax melts and is allowed to flow out of the mould; after then end of the firing process, one obtains a negative form ready to receive the molten bronze to cast a positive figure The lost­wax casting method was already known in ancient Greece, but proliferated greatly in late nineteenth­century France (when Rodin lived) with the advent of industrial production methods Invention of a machine that allowed for scaled copies (larger or smaller) of sculpture in 1839 by Achille Colas Sculpture Sculpture Bronze Plaques (lost­wax technique) from the Court of Benin, 1575­1650, Nigeria (London, British Museum) Funeral Mask from the Royal Tombs of Mycenae, ca. 1500 B.C.E., beaten gold • Example of repoussé (beaten metal) technique; not cast metal Positive and Negative Mass Posit...
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