APsyc2000Chapter6Learning+students

APsyc2000Chapter6Learning+students - Chapter 6 Learning...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Learning What Is Learning ? learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge acquired through experience Orienting Response – inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events. sensitization – exaggerated response to unexpected sights or sounds habituation- decreased responsiveness to unchanging stimuli What Is Learning? Con’t dishabituation – increased responsiveness when habituated stimulus changes non-associative learning – only one stimulus is present (i.e., one stimulus doesn’t predict the second) Classical Conditioning: Learning Signals and Associations (Associative Learning) Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist won Nobel Prize in 1904 Components of Classical Conditioning A reflex is a swift, unlearned automatic response to a stimulus A neutral stimulus does not initially trigger the reflex classical conditioning – repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response until the neutral stimulus alone elicits a similar response Components of Classical Conditioning Con’t Phase 1: Prior to Conditioning a. unconditioned stimulus (UCS – meat powder) elicits an Unconditioned Response (UCR - salivation ) a. neutral Stimulus (bell) elicits orienting Response (attracts attention). Components of Classical Conditioning Con’t Phase 2: The Process of Conditioning ~ Present Neutral Stimulus ( bell ) followed by UCS ( meat powder) which elicits the UCR- salivation Components of Classical Conditioning Con’t Phase 3: After Conditioning has Occurred ~ Present Conditioned _stimulus (CS- bell ) which now elicits Conditioned Response (CR - salivation ) Pavlov’s Dog, Pavlov Museum, 2005 Classical Conditioning Procedure Classical Conditioning of Emotions J. B. Watson and Little Albert Phase 1: Before Conditioning a. UCS Loud Noise UCR fear b. Neutral Stimulus White Rat Orienting Response Phase 2: Conditioning Process NS + UCS Fear/Crying Phase 3: After Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response ( Crying ) Similar Versus Dissimilar Stimuli Stimulus generalization – a CR is elicited by stimuli similar to the CS....
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APsyc2000Chapter6Learning+students - Chapter 6 Learning...

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