Ch. 4 Outline

Ch. 4 Outline - Ellie Beier November 27, 2005 Mr. Henry 1st...

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Ellie Beier November 27, 2005 Mr. Henry – 1 st AP Psych Ch. 4 Outline The Developing Person Developmental Psychology – The branch of psychology concerned with physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. 1 . Nature/nurture: how genes and experience influence development 2. Continuity/stages: Is development a gradual, continuous process or does it proceed through stages? 3. Stability/change: Do our early personality traits persist throughout our life? I. Prenatal Development and the Newborn a. Conception i. Women born with all the immature eggs they will ever have, 1 in 5000 will mature and be released ii. Men start producing sperm at puberty and make 1000 sperm per second b. Prenatal Development i. Zygote – the fertilized egg, that is, the cluster of cells formed during conception by the union of the sperm and egg. 1. fewer than ½ of all fertilized eggs survive the first 2 weeks 2. 10 days after conception the cell cluster attaches itself to the mother’s uterine wall ii. Embryo – the developing prenatal organism from about 2 weeks through 2 months after cognition. 1. organs begin to form and function and the liver begins to make red blood cells iii. Fetus – the dvlping prenatal human from 9 wks after conception 2 birth 1. by the end of the 6 th month the organs like the stomach are sufficiently formed as to allow a prematurely born fetus a chance to survive, they are responsive to sound, prefer the sound of their mother’s voice over their father’s (they have a decreased heart rate) 33-37 th week iv. Teratogens - (literally, poisons) are any drugs, viruses, or other substances that cross the mother’s placental and can harm the developing embryo or fetus. (nicotine, heroine, AIDS) v. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – the physical and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause in the developing child. 1. 1 in 750 infants have it 2. marked by small, misproportioned hear and lifelong brain abnormalities 3. the leading cause of mental retardation c. The Competent Newborn i. Rooting Reflex – the newborn’s tendency, when his or her cheek is stroked, to orient toward the stimulus and begin sucking. ii. William James thought babies only experienced buzzing confusion iii. Babies are born preferring sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness iv. We gaze longer at face-like images than at bulls eye patterns
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v. Week-old babies know their mother’s smell vi. Habituation - A decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented. A simple form of learning used to study infant cognition. 1. babies can tell if an object they have previously seen has been rotated II. Infancy and Childhood a. Physical Development i. Brain Development 1. in the womb, body forms nerve cells at the rate of ¼ million per minute 2. Maturation – the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior and are relatively uninfluenced by experience or other environmental factors. a.
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Ch. 4 Outline - Ellie Beier November 27, 2005 Mr. Henry 1st...

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