Ch. 5 Outline

Ch. 5 Outline - Ellie Beier October 23, 2005 AP Psychology...

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Ellie Beier October 23, 2005 AP Psychology Mr. Henry Pd. 1 Ch. 5 Outline I. Sensation 1. Sensation – is the process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals 2. Perception – is the process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information 3. Bottom-up Processing – is analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information 4. Top-down Processing – is information processing guided by higher-level mental processes II. Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles a. Thresholds 1. Psychophysics – is the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them ii. Absolute Thresholds 1. Absolute Threshold – is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time iii. Signal Detection 1. Signal Detection Theory – explains precisely how and when we detect the presence of faint stimulus (“signal”). Detection depends partly on experience, expectation, motivation, and alertness iv. Subliminal Stimulation 1. Subliminal – when a stimulus is below the absolute threshold for awareness v. Difference Thresholds 1. Difference Threshold – a.k.a just noticeable difference (jnd). The minimum difference between two stimuli that a subject can detect 50% of the time 2. Weber’s Law – states that the jnd between two stimuli is a constant minimum proportion of the stimulus a. Example : If a difference of 10% in weight is noticeable, Weber’s Law predicts that a person could discriminate 10- and 11- pound weights or 50- and 55- pound weights. b. Sensory Adaptation
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1. Sensory Adaptation – refers to the decreased sensitivity that occurs with continued exposure to and unchanging stimulus III. Vision 1. Transduction – refers to the decreased sensitivity that occurs with continued exposure to and unchanging stimulus b. The Stimulus Input: Light Energy 1. Wavelength – the distance from the peak of one light (or sound) wave to the next, gives rise to the perceptual
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Ch. 5 Outline - Ellie Beier October 23, 2005 AP Psychology...

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