Matthias Grunewald – isenheim altarpiece, 1510-15 for the chapel of the Hospital of Saint Anthony, isenhiem, germanyThis was a complex and fascinating monument reflecting Catholic beliefs and incorporating several references to Catholic doctrines such as the lamb – symbol of the son of God, whose wound spurts bloodinto a chalice in the Crucifixion scene, Created for the monastic hospital order of Saint Anthony of ISenheim. 1510-15The shrine was carved by Nikolaus Hagenauer. 1505Crucifixion is in the center. Saint Sebastian on L. Saint Anthony Abbot on R. Lamentation in the predella. When these are open, 4 more scenes are seen – annunciation, angelic concert, Madonna and Child, Resurrection. On the bottom is the Meeting of Saints Anthony and Paul, and Temptation of Saint Anthony. Saints associated with the plague or diseases and miraculous cures such as Saint Anthony and Sebastian appear prominently in this. The panels specifically address the themes of dire illness and miraculous healing and accordingly emphasize the suffering of the order’s patron saint, Anthony. Crucifixion emphasizes Christ’s pain and suffering but the knowledge that this act redeemed humanity tempers the misery. St Anthony on R, like Christ endured suffering. St Anthony’s appearance on the exterior reinforces G’s themes of pain, illness and death, as well as hope, comfort and salvation. Albrecht Durer was the dominant artist of the early 16thcentury in the Holy Roman Empire. First outside Italy to become an international celebrity. Knight, Death and the Devil. 1513 – in this engraving, Durer present a virtueous knight on a pale horse encountering the devil in many forms. The devil has an hourglass, a symbol of the brevity of life. And the knight is being followed by a pig shaped horse.Four Horsemen of the apocalypse. 1498illustrations for The Apocalypse, the Four Horsemen presents a dramatically distilled version of the passage from the Book of Revelation (6:1–8). Dürer injects motion and danger into this climactic moment through his subtle manipulation of the woodcut. The parallel lines across the image establish a basic
middle tone against which the artist silhouettes and overlaps the powerful forms of the four horses and riders—from left to right, Death, Famine, War, and Plague(Pierre Lescot designed the Louvre palace. )Peter Breugel – Greatest Netherlandish painter of the mid 16thcentury. Hunters in the snow, 1565.Illustrates different seasons. Draws the viewer diagonally deep into the landscape by his mastery of line, shape and composition. The painting shows human figures and landscape locked in winter cold, reflecting the particularly severe winter of 1565, when Breugel produced the work. The weary hunters return with their hounds, women build fires, skaters skim the frozen pond and the town and its church huddle in their mantle of snow.