OCHEM Extraction of Benzoic Acid 1

OCHEM Extraction of Benzoic Acid 1 - The Extraction of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Extraction of Benzoic Acid from a Mixture Lindy Hilpert Brad Hutnick Organic Chemistry 330 September 7, 2007 Introduction: The purpose of this experiment was to extract benzoic acid from a mixture of benzoic acid, cellulose, and methyl orange. Reactions, Theories, and Mechanisms: Extraction is the process of separating a specific substance from a mixture. Chemically active extraction is the same process except that a chemical reaction is needed to change the polarity of one of the substances in the mixture. Polarity is the property of having two electronically different poles. Polarity is applied to atoms by measuring how electrons in a bond are shared between the two atoms. Electrognegativity plays a large part in the polarity of a molecule. The more electronegative an atom is, the more the electrons are attracted to it. When the atoms in a molecule have different electronegativities, it results in a dipole. The dipole is representative of the partial charges of the molecule. These charges create a polar molecule. When atoms in a molecule have similar electronegativities, no partial charges are created, and it is a non polar molecule. In this experiment, a chemically active extraction was performed because the polarity of the benzoic acid needed to be changed. Because a polar substance and a non polar substance were used, when they were mixed together, they formed two layers. The bottom layer was aqueous and the top layer was organic. This result occured because they were immiscible. The rule of immiscibility is that like dissolves like; polar dissolves polar; non polar dissolves non polar. By using a separatory funnel, it is possible to drain the bottom layer out to separate the two. Acids and bases are another important concept in this experiment. An acid is a substance that donates protons and a base is a substance that accepts protons. When an acid and base are mixed together, a salt and water are formed. The distribution coefficient, Kd, is the ratio of the solubilities of the compound being extracted in the two layers. As Kd increases, the solubility of the compound in organic solution increases. Kd = [Xorg / Xaq].Kd = [Xorg / Xaq]....
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OCHEM Extraction of Benzoic Acid 1 - The Extraction of...

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