History 443� Ottomans

History 443� Ottomans - History 443 Ottomans Origin...

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History 443— Ottomans 10/01/2008 14:37:00 Origin of Ottoman conquests Anatolian marches Pastoral nomads Segmentary politics They started moving west and there is nothing to stop them, so they didn’t o They moved from eastern Asia into Turkey—what was the Byzantine Empire that was Christian o This move was gradual—from the 800’s by the 1100’s there is a Turkish state o And by 12 th Uthman founds small state Initially these were run by pastoral nomadic tribes—moving around with goats— why? Because land not really good for farming but can wander around looking for grass Fairly stable arid zone from Morocco to China—doesn’t rain much there—lots of nomadic tribes Then there are river valleys—important b/c you can irrigate off of them Not a life conducive to higher studies—most are unschooled and illiterate—also have unorthodox religions b/c of this fact Typically organized by kinship—may be political only and falsely constructed over the centuries o So a tribe is more of a political party that is pretending to be related o There are real kinships in tribes as well however—but getting all family members on the same side is hard but will unite against outsiders if need Called Segmentary Politics Sometimes they get their act together and can become a great cavalry—their lifestyle is perfect for it. o Good horsemen o Mobile
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At this period people in the middle east were not very good at standing up to them and they tended to roll right over the peasants There is a cycle of pastoral nomadic leaderships—Ibn Caldun The original Ottoman tribe was pastoral nomadic—Uthman seems to be one of those leaders who was able to unite many together. As they move though they become Islamic—mostly Sunnis Overtime the peasants they encountered gave up Greek and spoke Turkish and abandoned Christianity and adopted Islam o Sufism—mystical Islam—spread among the peasants Theories of Ottoman Solidarity Muslim Ghazis (holy warriors) o Tribal genealogies discounted o
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