History 443�19th Century Egypt

History 443�19th Century Egypt - History 44319 th...

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Unformatted text preview: History 44319 th Century Egypt 17/01/2008 14:34:00 Bonaparte invasion in 1798 Introduction Egypt was a province of the Ottoman empire at the beginning Cairo was capital Egypt was referred to as the lands around Cairo Relatively autonomous province Egyptians would have said they were Ottomans Bonaparte Seeks another Campaign Persuaded to invade Egypt Rhetoric of liberty, liberation, restoration of civilizational greatness to the Egyptians Britain against this Why invade o French were sick of British had naval superiority o Wanted to disrupt their communication with India o Also wanted the economic benefits of controlling Egypt Egypt 1798 Egypt stretches from Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast down the Nile to Aswan Bonaparte Invades 54000 soldiers and sailors 13 ships of the Line Aimed at weakening British link to India Battles of Alexandria, Shubrakhit, Cairo (July 1798) o Cairocalled the battle of the Pyramids by Bonaparte o Took these fairly easily o Bonaparte not used to fighting in arid conditions so many died of exposure and thirst Disaster of defeat of French fleet by British early August o Had huge battle, French defeated o Not uneven battle but British penetrated the munitions hold o Now he has no fleet and he is stuck Cairo Revolt (Oct. 1798) Clerics, guilds, merchants In Cairo revolt Is put down brutally Bonaparte knew a fair amount about Islam and the area o But Egyptians didnt buy his arguments o So he assembles the clergy as the government of Egypt o Creates the first modern Islamic government To more easily rule Egypt he thinks o But all the citizens are unhappyplus they brought on new taxes He bombarded the populous with artillery to put it down Pardon of Cairenes Boneaparte pardons these people to try to work with them Tries to take over Syria Stopped at Acre because he is not able to bring his heavy artillery Cant punch a hole though the wall of the fortresses...
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History 443�19th Century Egypt - History 44319 th...

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