History 443--Iran Under the Qajars

History 443--Iran Under the Qajars - History 443-Iran Under...

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History 443—Iran Under the Qajars  24/01/2008 14:35:00 From 1785 to WWI Quajar Iran 1789-1925 Big country—4x that of France Rugged country About 11 major cities Ethnically diverse and linguistically Persian is language but only 51% speak it o Not Arabic o Indo-European language—related to English o Iranians not Arabs There is also non-indo-European languages in Iran About a third speak Turkic languages Persian is taught in schools b/c national language Social Reforms In Iran, water scarce o Villages placed far apart o Impedes social movements
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Obstacles to social cohesion o Deserts o Mountain ranges o Lack of rivers except Karun Up north around Caspian sea closer together so more social movements  there o Lake effect rain o Peasent revolts usually around here o But not in the great salt desert Demographics 1800= 5mn 1900= 10mn in 1850, 55% peasant villagers o most villages have pop. 250 Urban pop. Less than 20% in this period o There are 11 cities with pop 25,000 or more o This is a little high for this period but probably because of instability o Government unstable Pastoral Nomads Pastoralists are 50% of population in 1800
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Are 25% in 1900 o No decline in absolute numbers But decline in proportion o This is a problem for the government Hard to get them to pay taxes Can’t really punish them or catch up with them or find them They move around and are a source of turbulance They might raid a village  Thus your army gets tied up with them So Government tries to play one off the other but tribal feuds  can get out of hand This is part of why the government is so weak in the 1800’s By 1900’s the government is stronger  16 major tribal groupings State Religion Shiite states with two wings: o Civil authorities o Clerical judges, educators Problem of legitimacy in Shiism Basically they followed the religion of their king o This is how they got most of them to be Shiites
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o Some of it was voluntary It is the only Shiite state The rest of the Muslim world is mostly Sunni o Iraq—conversion to Sunni did not start until late 1900’s Problem of legitimacy in Shiite thought o Thought Imams should have civil and religious authority o But the line of the Imams died out—and the 12 is invisible—and he 
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History 443--Iran Under the Qajars - History 443-Iran Under...

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