Family Health Promotion PlanUniversity of Maryland Global CampusNURS 460: Family and Community Health Nursing
Pender’s Health Promotion ModelNola Pender developed the Health Promotion Model (HPM). This nursing theory states that diseases or illnesses can be prevented through behavior modification and healthy choices. The HPM helps nurses to understand that promoting healthy lifestyle through behavioral counseling is a major determinant of health behaviors. The HPM has five key concepts including1) person, 2) environment, 3) nursing, 4) health and 5) illness. According to the HPM, the individual is shaped by the environment he or she lives in. “Individual characteristics and life experiences shape behaviors” (). In addition, the HPM emphasizes the definition of health as the actualization of human potential through goal-directed behavior, self-care, and relationship with others. Health is therefore a positive dynamic state of being and not simply the absence of disease. On the other hand, illnesses are defined as discrete life events that hinder the patient’s continuing efforts for health. Nurses are therefore challenged to focus on understanding and addressing the variables in a patient’s life that are more predictive of given health behaviors. There are four assumptions included in the Health Promotion Model. The first one is that individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior. Individuals are more committed at engaging in behaviors that has valued benefits. The second assumption of the HPM is that individuals transform the environment as well as the environment transforms the individual over time. Individuals interact with their environment. Individual characteristics, experiences, prior behavior and personal factors (biological, psychological and socio-cultural) predict an individual’s health behavior. The third assumption of the HPM is that health professionals like nurses is a part of the individual’s interpersonal environment which exerts influence on people through their life span. Family, peers and healthcare providers are considered primary sources of
interpersonal influences. The fourth assumption of the HPM states that in order to achieve change in health behavior, an individual must be able to reconfigure the interactive patterns between person and environment. An individual should have a commitment to a plan of action that can lead to health promoting behavior. Once this behavior is achieved, positive health outcomes such as optimal well-being, personal fulfillment and productive living can be attained.