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Philosophy 10100 Midterm Review

Philosophy 10100 Midterm Review - Philosophy 10100 Midterm...

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Philosophy 10100: Midterm Study Questions Term Definition Premise A statement in an argument whose truth is assumed and not established by the argument Modus Tollens Classical Argument Structure: If A then B Not B Therefore Not A Modus Ponens Classical Argument Structure If P then Q P Therefore Q Syllogism A type of logical argument with a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion, ie. All men are mortal <-- Major Premise Socrates is a man <-- Minor Premise Socrates is mortal <-- Conclusion Deductive Inference A form of argument that is valid iff it is impossible for the conclusion to be false if the premises are true Inductive Inference A less definitive form of argument that deals in probability, such as inferring the next case or making a universal generalization Soundness The quality of having validity and true premises Validity Quality of an argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false if the premises are true, deals solely with relation between statements Equivocation Fallacy of changing the definition of a word in an argument to make different premises true Begging the Question Fallacy of presupposing a conclusion as premise Perfections Qualities that make something great such as: omniscience, omnipotence, benevolence, existence Ontological Argument Argument for the existence of God put forth by Anselm that “proves” the existence of God by assuming existence is a perfection
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Impossible Things Things that cannot exist even in understanding, eg. A 5-sided Triangle A priori v. A posteriori A priori arguments are based soley on definition of terms, while a posteriori arguments depend on evidence gathered through natural observation Reductio ad Absurdum A type of argument that assumes the negation of the conclusion to establish a conclusion, because the negation leads to a contradiction Gaunilo’s Island The objection to the Ontological Argument that says that this arguments proves the existence of a perfect island (or any other object) Principle of Sufficient Reason The principle that every event and entity needs an explanation; all positive facts need an explanation Cosmological Argument The argument for the existence of God, because of the need for an unmoved mover or a self-existent being Fallacy of Composition The objection that just because all members of a set need an explanation, does not follow that the set needs an explanation Unmoved Mover The God of Aquinas that solves the problem of infinite regress Teleological Argument The argument that a creator must exist because of the regularity and functionality of the Universe (especially
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