Exam Notes Summary.docx - Exam I Epistemology History 1...

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Exam I. Epistemology & History 1. Organizational Culture Please read the article by Schein (1985) and consider the following questions regarding the culture of the SOWI at University of Innsbruck: - Examples of cultural artifacts? european culture informal dress code architecture: glass/open building regular ceremonies knocking on the table after lecture open study oppoertunity with round tables hierarchy/titles: knowledge meritocacy (reliance on titles more than knowledge); certificates are proxies - Examples of values? tradition of respect/appreciation independence/freedom honesty equality self-management/self-reliance values result out of artifacts (elevator artefact: value barrier-free/openness/equality) - Examples of basic assumptions? established behaviour in classroom people come to learn, freewill, not forced, can go if they don’t like knowledge not monopolized, you can also learn from your peer joint work ethics „do something even though it may be hard“ freedom from discrimonation/of expression Aspects of Organizational Culture - Culture is a phenomenon that surrounds us all - The word ‘culture’ can be applied to any size of social unit that has the opportunity to learn and stabilize its view of itself and the environment around it – its basis assumptions - Culture = “a pattern of basic assumptions – invented, discovered, or developed by a given as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaption and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to
be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems” (Schein 1985: 9) - It helps us to understand how it is created, embedded, developed, manipulated, managed and changed - Culture defines leadership understand the culture to understand the organization - What is an organizational culture? o An abstract concept and therefore difficult to understand o Culture is customs and rights o Good managers have to work from a more anthropological model o Each organization has its own way and an outsider brings his/her baggage as observer understand new environment and culture before change or observation can be made: 1. Observe behavior: language, customs, traditions 2. Groups norms: standards and values 3. Espoused values: published, publicly announced values 4. Formal Philosophy: mission 5. Rules of the Game: rules to all in organizations 6. Climate: climate of group in interaction 7. Embedded skills: 8. Habits of thinking, acting, paradigms: Shared knowledge for socialization 9. Shared meanings of the group 10. Metaphors or symbols: o Culture = norms, values, behavior patterns, rituals, traditions o Culture implies structural stability and patterning and integration o Culture is accumulated shared learning from shared history o 2 problems all groups must deal with: A) survial, growth and adaption in environment B) internal integration that permits functioning and adapting o culture explains incomprehensible, irrational o

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