Review1 - War & The Nation-State Review Test 1 Dynastic...

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Dynastic States Absolutist states formed following the collapse of the feudal order, important actors 1500-1792 Saw war as the affair of government, ignoring “the people” o Taxes for mercenaries (centralized state) o Westphalia (1648) – Monarch as absolute Nation State States that connect people (nation) and the government (state) that are the primary actors from the French Revolution (1792) to present Harnessed the power of nationalism, born through the French Revolution and continues . . . o German Unification o Breakup of USSR o Middle East (Arab-Israeli conflict) King is no longer the state, the people are Many more people willing to fight and die for the state State-Society Divide Problem of disconnect between people and the pre- revolutionary dynastic states Created several strategic/tactical issues o Little mobility due to high desertion o Small movement of entirety of army o Bad roads, bad maps, bad intel and limited supply No ability to replace soldiers led to low tolerance for casualties Constant Limited War Tactics of Europe (Pre-Revolution) Fought in long tightly connected lines marching toward one another in close proximity Long time to deploy and arrange army Fire power (throw it all at them) style attack Front-loading musket led to poor accuracy and extreme discipline in reloading Did NOT allow:(these came with Revolution/Napoleon) o Column fighting o Skirmishers o Prominent Artillery use French Revolution Social and Political upheaval in France that lead to the fall of the monarchy and the establishment of citizenship rights of the mass public from 1789-1800 and beyond Allowed for the rise of Napoleon to power in 1799, and eventually named Emperor in 1804 Starts with French social and fiscal problems and the eventual beheading of Louis and Marie-Antoinette Major social upheaval lead to meritocracy within military
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and the rise of fit and smart officers Universal conscription (1789) and a rise in nationalism are attributed to the Revolution allowing a major transformation in war in Europe Levée en Masse The “mass uprising” of the French people following the events of the French Revolution Order required all “fit males” to go to battle (universal conscription) and all women, children and elderly also required to aid in war effort in various ways August 23, 1793 Major influx in “citizen soldiers” allows for 300,000 immediate new soldiers and eventually the army to rise to 1 million King’s War becomes peoples war with all now having rights and responsibilities Turning of the tide and France does pretty well Napoleonic Wars Campaign of wars across Europe led by the new French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, and his new style of warfare and harnessing of the power of nationalism Early battles in 1805 lead to a humiliating defeat of
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course POLS 30202 taught by Professor Lieber during the Spring '08 term at Notre Dame.

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Review1 - War & The Nation-State Review Test 1 Dynastic...

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