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Jørn Utzon, Sydney Opera House, 1957-1973Building as National Symbol•Vitruvius:‘match’ orders to temples by genders of the gods•Buildings should ‘speak’ to viewers, explain identity visually•18th c. France: ‘speaking architecture’ expresses ‘character’•C. N. Ledoux: Muse of Theater for actress’s house in Paris•Legibility: assumes shared visual & cultural knowledgeReading ArchitectureLedoux, Hôtel for Mlle. Guimard, 177012
Ledoux, Gateway to Chaux, ca. 1780•Ledoux: brand-new industrial town for Royal Saltworks•Gateway: rough, cavelike surfaces express sources of salt•Designs that equate job & identity: river inspector’s house•Utopian community: new institutions, better way of lifeCharacter at ChauxLedoux, House for the River Inspector at Chaux•Labrouste: identifies his library by listing authors•HOW do we ‘read’ architecture? Not text, but formHenri Labrouste, Library of Ste.-Geneviéve, Paris, 1843-51Detail of wall inscriptions, Library of Ste.-Geneviéve, ParisReading a Library34
•Semiotics: study of how visual signs communicate meaning•Charles Sanders Peirce: signs communicate in three ways•Icon:sign appears similar to a referent•Index: sign is a physical trace of a referent•Symbol: sign represents a referent through convention Semiotics•Two postwar mass-produced house designs•Semiotics and success: symbolism and memoryBuckminster Fuller, Wichita House, 1946American Dream Homes?