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3.1adobe – mud bricksthermal mass - composite - corbel - all layers of masonry are horizontalvoussoir - wedge-shaped stones for arches; Keystonekeystone – center of an archstereotomy - science of shaping construction stonespozzolana - natural volcanic cement (Vesuvius)friable - needs a hard surfaceopus - brick patternreticulatum – diamond patternveneer - Visible surface = plaster or stone Veneerrustication – Imperial Code•Li Jie (d. 1110): Song dynasty bureaucrat, scientist, painter•Supervised imperial palace, bridge, & ship construction•Wrote first building code in China; materials, module (cai)•Established standard terminology, methods (roof slopes)Vitruvius, Structure, and LegitimacyThe Tabula Rasa•Vitruvius: Greek orders = ‘natural’ (proportions, human body)•Also: vocabulary expresses original wood temple construction•Classical details justified as memory of a primitive originalENLIGHTENMENT: reason as the ultimate test of truth•Great faith in logic; doubt about idea of ‘civilization’•18th c. Philosophers: find truth in the ‘Primitive’•Explains human nature, path to best social structure•Locke: mind as ‘blank slate’; Rousseau and ‘natural’ lifeAbbé Laugier (1713-1769)Outsider critic; Jesuit, Benedictinepreacher, historian•“Essay on Architecture”: brief, popular•Redefines the meaning and validity ofthe classical tradition•‘Primitive Hut:’ origin as Design IDEAL•‘Pure’ classicism = 3 pieces ONLY:Column, pediment, entablature•Why? Structural elementsCarlo Lodoli (1690-1761)
•Venetian aristocrat, Franciscan priest, mathematician, teacher•Students published his ideas on architecture:•Architecture should be ‘rational’•Classicism Flawed by translation from wood to stone•Design language should reflect a material’s properties•‘Good’ stone architecture: like Egypt, StonehengeLaugier & Lodoli: ‘honesty’in structure & form3.2barrel vault - groin vault - bay - ribbed vault - flying buttress - Piers: transfer loads from wallsstructural rationality - trabeation - (post & beam)arcuation - vaultscurtain wall - •Concrete: recovered from antiquity as industrial product•Modern improvement: reinforced with metal bars, mesh•New design possibilities: thin slabs with point supports•Reinforced concrete: works in compression AND tension•Reyner Banham (1922-1988): aeronautical engineering,then architectural history (Pevnser = Ph.D. advisor!)•1960 Book Theory and Design in the First Machine Age:modern architecture is ALL about technology•Criticized postwar modern architecture as just a ‘style’•Solution: recover a technologically radical visionBanham’s Hero•Engineer Buckminster Fuller: machine-like houses•Best quote: “Madam, how much does your house weigh?”•Factory-made aluminum house: efficient, strong, cheap•Banham’s 1965 essay “A House is not a Home”: Houses =high-tech systems hidden under sheetrock and shingles•Americans want mobility, nature, not fixed ‘monuments’•‘Home’: protective bubble generated by portable machinery3.3National Treasure•Ise: Most sacred Shinto sanctuary in Japan (sun goddess)•High Priest = Imperial family member (religion & state)•Inner shrine: closed to public except 2 months/20 yearsAlways Old, Ever New•Inner Shrine: rebuilt every 20 years (Sengu) since 690
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Modern Architecture, groin vault, Barrel vault, best social structure, postwar modern architecture, wood temple construction