Review guide for 3.1-3.3 - 3.1 adobe mud bricks thermal mass composite corbel all layers of masonry are horizontal voussoir wedge-shaped stones for

Review guide for 3.1-3.3 - 3.1 adobe mud bricks thermal...

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3.1adobe – mud bricksthermal mass - composite - corbel - all layers of masonry are horizontalvoussoir - wedge-shaped stones for arches; Keystonekeystone – center of an archstereotomy - science of shaping construction stonespozzolana - natural volcanic cement (Vesuvius)friable - needs a hard surfaceopus - brick patternreticulatum – diamond patternveneer - Visible surface = plaster or stone Veneerrustication – Imperial CodeLi Jie (d. 1110): Song dynasty bureaucrat, scientist, painter•Supervised imperial palace, bridge, & ship construction•Wrote first building code in China; materials, module (cai)•Established standard terminology, methods (roof slopes)Vitruvius, Structure, and LegitimacyThe Tabula RasaVitruvius: Greek orders = ‘natural’ (proportions, human body)Also: vocabulary expresses original wood temple construction•Classical details justified as memory of a primitive originalENLIGHTENMENT: reason as the ultimate test of truth•Great faith in logic; doubt about idea of ‘civilization’•18th c. Philosophers: find truth in the ‘Primitive’•Explains human nature, path to best social structure•Locke: mind as ‘blank slate’; Rousseau and ‘natural’ lifeAbbé Laugier (1713-1769)Outsider critic; Jesuit, Benedictinepreacher, historian•“Essay on Architecture”: brief, popularRedefines the meaning and validity ofthe classical tradition•‘Primitive Hut:’ origin as Design IDEAL•‘Pure’ classicism = 3 pieces ONLY:Column, pediment, entablatureWhy? Structural elementsCarlo Lodoli (1690-1761)
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•Venetian aristocrat, Franciscan priest, mathematician, teacher•Students published his ideas on architecture:•Architecture should be ‘rational’•Classicism Flawed by translation from wood to stone•Design language should reflect a material’s properties•‘Good’ stone architecture: like Egypt, StonehengeLaugier & Lodoli: ‘honesty’in structure & form3.2barrel vault - groin vault - bay - ribbed vault - flying buttress - Piers: transfer loads from wallsstructural rationality - trabeation - (post & beam)arcuation - vaultscurtain wall - Concrete: recovered from antiquity as industrial productModern improvement: reinforced with metal bars, meshNew design possibilities: thin slabs with point supportsReinforced concrete: works in compression AND tensionReyner Banham (1922-1988): aeronautical engineering,then architectural history (Pevnser = Ph.D. advisor!)1960 Book Theory and Design in the First Machine Age:modern architecture is ALL about technologyCriticized postwar modern architecture as just a ‘style’Solution: recover a technologically radical visionBanham’s HeroEngineer Buckminster Fuller: machine-like housesBest quote: “Madam, how much does your house weigh?”Factory-made aluminum house: efficient, strong, cheapBanham’s 1965 essay “A House is not a Home”: Houses =high-tech systems hidden under sheetrock and shinglesAmericans want mobility, nature, not fixed ‘monuments’Home’: protective bubble generated by portable machinery3.3National TreasureIse: Most sacred Shinto sanctuary in Japan (sun goddess)High Priest = Imperial family member (religion & state)Inner shrine: closed to public except 2 months/20 yearsAlways Old, Ever NewInner Shrine: rebuilt every 20 years (Sengu) since 690
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  • Fall '11
  • COSTANZO,DENISER
  • Modern Architecture, groin vault, Barrel vault, best social structure, postwar modern architecture, wood temple construction

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