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3.4colonialism – displaced culture in a ‘new’ placeJefferson: first U.S. ambassador to France from 1784-1789•French architects said study ancient architecture directly•Saw one ancient building: Maison Carrée (Republican Rome)•New U.S. government structure modeled on Roman Republic•Rome = proper architectural model for new U.S. institutions•Jefferson’s Virginia State Capitol: obvious copy of NîmesGeorgian style: simplified Palladianism in brick & wood•Jefferson: what should ‘American’ architecture be?•Critical of using hybrid, borrowed style from EnglandHoratio GreenoughAmerican Sculptor who worked in Italy during 1830s•Washington as American Zeus: OK•BUT: Classical style WRONG for American architecture•“American Architecture” (1843):•U.S. should stop copying Europe•Unique geography, culture & institutions need “a new style of architecture”•Winckelmann: Greek classicism = “best ever,” best possible choice•Greek classicism = universal; belongs to Germany as much as Greece•Von Klenze: “There was, is and will only ever be one architecture”•Johann Herder (1787): “Why should we always imitate foreigners, asif we were Greeks or Romans?”•J. W. Goethe’s essay ‘On German Architecture’ (1772)•Strasburg: ‘intensive feelings of the German people’•Complete Cologne Cathedral for national unity (1867)•Radical rethinking of society: French Revolution of 1789•Royal authority, aristocracy => ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’•Radical secularism: new calendar, metric system est. in 1793•‘Purified’ classicism of patriotic virtue, not unjust decadenceJean-Nicolas-Louis DurandStudied with Boullée, turns Revolutionary ideals into design•‘Temple of Equality’ of 1794: columns proclaim new virtues•Capitals: Female Allegorical heads for different virtues•Prof. of Architecture at ‘Revolutionary’ École Polytechnique1799: Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) gains power in coup•‘Emperor of France’ 1804-1815; conquered all of Europeexcept Britain and Russia by 1810•Architectural symbols of the ‘New France’: Classical & Big•Arc de Triomphe by a student of Boullée: 164’ vs. 68’ in Rome