final_review_sheet - Chapter 11 – Deviance and Social...

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Chapter 11 – Deviance and Social Control Conformity – a change in behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people ~ continuing to accept the goals of success and achievement and the means of hard work even when it isn’t getting them anywhere o Muzafer Sherif (1930’s) Auto – kinetic effect: if stare at something for a long time it will begin to move this study based upon conformity under ambiguous conditions o Solomon Asch (1930’s): Study of perceptual judgment brought people into a room and had them look at a drawing up in front wanted them to match the identical line in both pictures people began agreeing with the group confederates – people in on the study naïve subject - you conclusion: people were giving into group pressure o Milgram’s replication of Asch’s studies: Norway – more conformity France – less conformity More tightly knit the group the more conformity o Demonic Theories: Ended by the 18thy century Temptation and possession Battleground of good vs. evil Possession – taken over by an evil course Normative Behavior - behavior that is widely accepted of society (ex. – dancing, playing cards) o Based on what the group sees as normative and deviant o Howard Becker’s marijuana use Biological: o Cesare Lombroso (1876): Argued that deviants were biological failures Criminals are evolutionary throwbacks – atavists 43% of prisoners had 5 or more atavistic characteristics Only 11% of soldiers had as many as 3, none had 5 “Biology is Destiny” Atavists:
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Large forehead o Large jaw o Square and projecting chin o Broad cheek bones o Big ears o Long arms o Hairy o Sparse beard o Charles Goring: Compared thousands of convicts and non convicts Found no evidence of any physical differences that would distinguish members of one group from the other o William Sheldon (1940) A person’s body shape plays a role in criminality Three body types: o Ectomorphs – tall, thin, fragile o Endomorphs – short and fat o Mesomorphs – muscular and athletic criminality linked to mesomorphy findings had merit but he misunderstood the cause – effect relationship between body type and crime mesomorphy itself was not a cause of criminality but the way they were socialized (rougher) created an image that encouraged criminality Psychological Theories: o Deviance is caused by personality factors o Deviance like violence is an aggressive personality o Deviance like homosexuality is a psychological dependency Mala in Se ~ evil in and of themselves o Sociologist say that this can’t be defined Mala Prohibita ~ evil simply because they violate rules o In most societies o These acts are anything that goes against the group’s norms why sociologists tend to reject this distinction: o all norms are group based so there is no absolute good or bad, because they vary across society Egoism and Anomie:
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final_review_sheet - Chapter 11 – Deviance and Social...

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