Literature Review - Usage of Information Communication Systems

Literature Review - Usage of Information Communication Systems

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  • itssocold
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W1 Summary1: A Typology of Information and Communication Technology Users The advent of the world wide web and advances in IT have drastically changed the American way of life. However, not all Americans use this technology the same, and their attitudes towards IT vary greatly. Their assets, actions, and attitudes are all different. For example, 9% of the population invest a lot in personal IT but find it to be a hassle, whereas roughly the same amount of people have little experience but are fascinated and dream to use IT more. And 8% of Americans use IT extremely actively, tying it to virtually all aspects of their lives, whereas 15% of Americans are not even connected! This paper sought to understand in what ways people use IT and their attitudes towards it, classify them into specific types, and describe the demographics. This research is valuable because we can apply these findings to future studies about IT. The paper has broken down the American population into 3 broad types of IT users, and has broken those down even further. There are Elite tech users (Omnivores, Connectors, Lackluster Veterans, and Productivity Enhancers), Middle-of-the-road users (Mobile Centrics, Connected but Hassled), and Few Assets users (Inexperienced experimenters, Light but Satisfied, Indifferents, Off the Network). These people differ in their usage and attitudes towards IT, but they also vary in demographics, which were not taken into account during classification. An omnivore is usually a young man in his 20’s with quite a bit of education and uses IT for entertainment, social networking, work, and virtually all aspects of his life. Whereas a productivity enhancer is in his/her 40’s and uses IT mainly for their career. Age, gender, race, and education level all play a role in how people use IT. Interestingly, there is no correlation with income and a type of IT user. We, as researchers in the social/policy aspects of the IT field, need to know and understand these classifications. By knowing who falls into what type of group, one can administer surveys to the target group in ways that fit in with their lifestyle and the way they use technology. This knowledge also keeps people on their guard, understanding that online articles are the work of a certain type of people and when conducting research, responses and methodologies may be flawed and biased towards a certain type of IT user. We can also learn from the methodology of this research. Because it is self-report and through telephone interviews, it is difficult to get a good sampling of data. However, in this case, 26000 households were randomly selected (a very very large sample size) and 10 attempts were made for each household in order to get the data. This persistence is commendable because it eliminates the bias that would normally occur when households refuse to participate due to lack of time or willpower. The response rate of 30% (which is quite good) resulted in data for 4001 households.
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W1 Summary2: Delivery of Benefits in an Emergency: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina In the summer of 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused havoc in the Gulf Coast region. 4
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  • Fall '01
  • allhouse
  • History, Government, Citizen Participation, digital citizen participation, Communication Technology Users

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