Phil 201 exam 1 - 1. Begging the questiona. assuming an...

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1. Begging the question- a. assuming an inferior or less than self-evident principle when constructing our argument b. unsound but valid i.e. they do not involve any formal fallacy i. circular reasoning 1. whenever the conclusion you are trying to establish is either used as a premise or presupposed by a premise a. ex- If God does not exist men should not worship But men should worship. God exists i. the argument only “proves” the existence of God after that existence is assumed; i.e. it is circular ii. Complex/loaded question 1. whenever a question is phrased so that it cannot be answered without granting a particular answer to some question at issue a. ex- the question is whether Alice should take the train or her dad’s car and her father asks her “Will you be taking the 8:40 or the 10:30?” i. no matter which alternative she chooses the question at hand has already been answered for her. iii. Assuming a more general claim 1. when a principle that is more general and implies an answer to some question at hand is assumed a. ex-one is trying to prove that sociological laws are uncertain or unreliable so you beg the question by assuming the more general claim that all knowledge about human beings is uncertain or behavior of human beings is “essentially” unpredictable iv. assuming every instance of a generalization 1. if the question at hand is a general claim or principle, then committed by assuming the truth of every instance of it a. Ex. Question- Should the US form an alliance with the countries behind the iron curtain? i. Beg the question by assuming the US should not form alliance with the Soviet Union, East Germany, Rumania, etc. v. Equivalent expressions 1. assuming an answer in the form of an equivalent ( but more or less recognizable) expression a. Ex. Are any cowboys millionaires? i. May assume 1. Some millionaires are cowboys 2. Pseudoauthority/ appeal to authority a. An argument to modesty i. Popular sentiments
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1. in the absence of a plausible argument for some view, the feelings or attitudes of a group of people are appealed to win acceptance a. Ex. ii. Jargon 1. when a claim is made to appear stronger than it is by the use of bombastic or technical-sounding language a. job title Assistant Director of Health, Sanitation, and Welfare i. really means second man on garbage truck iii. aphorisms 1. when an aphorism, proverb, maxim, or cliché is used as a substitute for a good reason a. Ex. Football coach says “people who make mistakes always make excuses” after player misses his target iv. Popular people 1. when it is argued that a certain claim must be true because some well-known person believes it 2. often referred to as the ipse dixit fallacy a. star X believes it v. Titles 1. when it is argued that a certain claim must be true because some significantly titled people believe it when no persons with that title are cited a. Ex. Doctors believe Medicare is a mistake Medicare is a mistake vi. Tradition 1. when it is argued that claim must be true because it has been
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Phil 201 exam 1 - 1. Begging the questiona. assuming an...

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