ch.5 outline - Chapter 5: Proteins: Primary Structure 1....

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Chapter 5: Proteins: Primary Structure 1. Polypeptide Diversity Proteins are described in terms of their level of organizations like all polymeric molecules, mainly primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures Primary Structure is considered as the first step in protein formation including the amino acid sequence of its polypeptide chain, or chains depending on the amount of the polypeptide chains in the protein. Proteins are synthesized by polymerization of amino acids in specific order of nucleotides in the particular gene. There are multiple proteins that can be synthesized on the basic principle that there are 20 basic amino acids for each residue in the polypeptide can. So the possible number of sequences that are available are based on the equation 20^(n), where n stands for the number residues possible. The smallest amount of residues known in most proteins is 40, anything less then that is not classified as polypeptides but as just peptides .(The majority of polypeptides contain between 100-1000 residues) Where most polypeptides fall, in term of size range, has to do with the certain biochemical process: 1. 40 residues tend to be the minimum so that a polypeptide chain is able to fold into a discrete and stable form in order to continuing certain functions. 2. Polypeptides with hundreds of residues may have a problem with effieciency in carrying out protein functions. Basically the longer the chain, the higher chance of errors for transcription and translation. Due to the fact that each amino acid residue has a different chemical and physical
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ch.5 outline - Chapter 5: Proteins: Primary Structure 1....

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