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Unformatted text preview: Review for Exam #2 Chapter 5 SummaryLearning and Adaptation Learning- process by which long-lasting changes in behavior are acquired as a result of experience. ~Learning occurs because of experience to something ~All learning comes from experience. ~learning benefits for the animal not only for survival but for general adaptation ~The ability to learn represents the ability to cope with these more chaotic changes, (environment, and surroundings) ~Learning and memory are definite adaptive advantages in species that live for longer periods of time. TYPES OF LEARNING AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Habituation- Decrease or disappearance of a built-in, natural response to a stimulus that occurs when the animal repeatedly encounters the stimulus. Because this occurs in many of the most primitive organisms. ~Organisms learn not to waste time and energy reacting to an unimportant or harmless stimulus. ~Clayton and Hinde showed this example in the Siamese fighting fish with the mirror images. Classical Conditioning- Animal already exhibits a certain built-in response (unconditioned response or UCR). When a certain stimulus (unconditioned stimulus or UCS) is presented. o Example- a dog will salivate (UCR) when a bit of food is put on its tongue (UCS). UNLEARNED RESPONSE. Instrumental Conditioning- Formerly called the systematic study, a trial and error learning phase o Edward L. Thorndike and the wooden puzzle box Cat must escape the box in order to reach its food. A lever was present so the cat could pull and get out of the box. Instrumental conditioning leads to an association between a stimulus (box) and response (escape). Rein forcers- any events that follow a response to serve to increase the prob. Of that responses occurrences. - Skinner studied how associative responses are strengthened and maintained once they are learned called operant conditioning. Developed skinners box. o Rat in an operant chamber with a food cup and response lever that released food. Shaping- Rewarding a behavior that is desired by the wanted behavior. o Giving a dog a treat when they are told to sit. Aversive Conditioning- A learning animal can respond to unpleasant or aversive stimuli. o An electric shock given to a specific response Punishment. 1. Intensity- strong aversive events suppress behavior better than weak ones. 2. Consistency- undesired response is given every time as a punishment not just occasionally. 3. Immediacy- punishment follows immediately after the response rather than later. 4. Suddenness- intense punishment right from the start. 5. Brevity- brief punishment rather than long in duration. Kohler and the idea of insight Insight- a sudden solution to a problem o The chimps sometimes solved problems suddenly Typical learning concepts could not be explained because they happened abruptly, rather than gradually....
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- Spring '08