CC Test 2 Notes.docx - CC test 2 Notes 1/15 Rational...

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CC test 2 Notes 1/15 Rational choice and deterrence - Beccaria (1764), said justice system was too unfair - Punishment should fit the crime Deterrence theory: - Severity, certainty, celerity of punishment - There needs to be something in place to deter us from doing crime Two types: - General – focus on deterring everyone, ex) capital punishment - Specific – more focused on individuals, ex) traffic tickets Validity: - Little support for deterrence theory Policy Implications: - NATO – any attack results in large scale aid Rational Choice Theory: Cornish and Clark (1985) - Individuals are free thinkers and make rational – decisions - Could can rationalize criminal behavior - Cost – benefit analysis - Can only make decision based on what you know - Maximize pleasure Routine Activities Theory: Cohen and Felson (1979) - “Opportunity Theory”, crime is normal - if you have the opportunity to commit crime you’re more likely to do it For crime to happen there must be (according to RAT): Motivated Offender Suitable Target Lack of capable guardian Validity: Good support but opportunity isn’t enough, must be other structural factors Implications: - security camera, passwords, MacAfee Victim offender overlap – victims more likely to be victims & victims more likely to be offenders
Differential Association: Edwin Sutherland – Father of American Criminology - criminal behavior is learned - learned through interactions with others - learn techniques and attitudes behind behavior - varies in duration, frequency, intensity priority – importance of individual duration – consistent contact over time intensity – strength of moral codes Anomie Durkheim and Merton: Durkheim: - normalness – people don’t know how to behave during drastic life changes - alienation, isolation, desocialization – lose sense of right and wrong ex) winning lottery functionalism – crime holds civilization together - group cohesion - clarifies norms and values - rewards for conformity Merton: - researched ends and means - what means do we use as a society prioritize as well as how to achieve them 5 types: - conformity – accept means and ends - innovation – reject means, accept ends - ritualism - accept means, reject ends - retreatism – reject means and ends - rebellion – new means, new ends Validity: - generally supported - lack of means leads to deviance
General strain theory Robert Agnew - stress and strain (interchangeable): distress – stress leads to negative strain eustress – stress that provides motivation strain – treated a way you don’t want to be treated three causes of strain: 1. failure to achieve (opportunity vs. inadequacy) 2. removal of goal or positive stimuli 3. failure to avoid negative stimuli coping: - cognitive coping - emotional coping (attachment to others) - behavioral coping (how you behave in response to negative stimuli) implications: - training and support in coping mechanisms - reduce negative associations - increase opportunities for those who lack
February 20, 2018 Social learning theory: - learn deviant behavior through interaction with others -

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