Ionization trend - General trend ionization energies...

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General trend ionization energies increase with atomic number within a given period ReasonZ increases by one full unit but σ by <1, thus the net result is that Z eff increases Atomic Radius 1. Within each period, the atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing atomic number (due to the greater nuclear charge) 2. Within each group, the atomic radius tends to increase with the period number 3. Factors determining the size of an atom Ionization Energy 1. First Ionization Energy: minimum energy needed to remove the highest energy (outermost) electron from the neutral atom in the gas phase 2. General trend: ionization energies increase with atomic number within a given period 3. Second, third, and fourth ionization energies can also be defined Factors determining the size of an atom 1. Principal quantum number: the larger the n, the larger the size of the orbital 2. Effective Nuclear Charge (Z eff ): positive charge an electron experiences from the

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