U.S History Study Notes Extra Credit & Alternative Midterm.docx

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U.S History Notes:1.1: Starting the Century Europe1451 Mehmed II waged work. New battle between Muslim and Christianity.How does the advance set the stage for western European Colonial expansion towards Africa and America? 1.2: Genoa and Portugal 11 Century Italian mosaic or a crusader.Prince Henry of Portugal pushed to explore the new lands. 1.Expanded down the western coast of Africa.2.Pushed westward.3.Africa slavery increased during this time of Portuguese expansion and colonization. 1.3:Columbus Early LifeBored in Genoa1476, Columbus career took a strange turn, his ship was damaged with expanded by thewar. (swam 6 miles)Columbus calculated the distance of 2,500 miles, he was off by 10,000 miles. 1492, the Alhambra, a Muslim stronghold in Granada, capture by Spain in 1492.1.4: Columbus “discovers” America. Reaches the Native Americans in 1492Tried to explain Spanish Christianity by using them in slavery. Threatened to separate them from their families if they didn’t follow directions. 1.5: Race and ColonizationUsed Animals qualities to describe the Natives. Racial classification and gave rights for those who looked right to them. (kind of like a social system)
1.6: The Spanish conquest to America Pope Alexander and many turned a blind eye to the massive sufferings in which colonization endured. The spread of influenza and smallpox killed a lot of Native American people “unfathomable”Columbus was sent back to Europe in 1500 in chains by the Native Americans. Died in 1506, by the Europeans rulers’ hand. Hernan Cortez Advantages horses and weaponry. 1.7:Slavery in Spanish AmericaFrequently enslaved Native Americans when it suited their purpose. Because Native Americans were dying, enslaved Africans would be brought in.Performed harsh labor like clearing land, building roads, digging for gold, and cultivating sugar. 1.8: The Mission System1560’s Spain concentrated resources in American especially in Florida. (Missionaries)1.Tried and had huge number of Native Americans to Christianity 2.Encomienda system placed Native labor under the authority of Spanish encomendeors who were entrusted with almost total control of Native American lives.3.Mission system missionaries were willing to negotiate with Native American to win their cooperation, but the missionary system wanted to aim for total control over Native American population and landscape. 1597, Guale Rebellion was led by Juanillo who was rejected by Spanish control over Polygamy. 1597, Juanillo Rebellion sparked the end of Spanish missionary control over Florida.
1.9: The Reformation Martin Luther, publicly attack Catholic church practices. Selling of indulgences which promised to lessen the punishment or more who sinned. And rejected core theological assumption about formative role that church played in personal salvation.

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