chapter1

chapter1 - 1. Structure and Bonding Based on McMurry's...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–13. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1. Structure and Bonding Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th edition
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Organic Chemist is the Chemistry of Carbon Compounds
Background image of page 2
3 What is Organic Chemistry? Living things are made of organic chemicals Proteins that make up hair DNA, controls genetic make-up Foods, medicines Examine structures below
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Origins of Organic Chemistry Foundations of organic chemistry from mid-1700’s. Compounds obtained from plants, animals hard to isolate, and purify. Compounds also decomposed more easily. Torben Bergman (1770) first to make distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry. It was thought that organic compounds must contain some “vital force” because they were from living sources.
Background image of page 4
5 Because of “Vital force”, it was thought that organic compounds could not be synthesized in laboratory like inorganic compounds. 1816, Chervrut showed that not to be the case, he could prepare soap from animal fat and an alkali 1828, Wholer showed that it was possible to convert inorganic salt ammonium cyanate into organic substance “urea”
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
6 Organic chemistry is study of carbon compounds. • Why is it so special? - 90% of more than 30 million chemical compounds contain carbon. - Examination of carbon in periodic chart answers some of these questions. - Formation of C-C bonds unique. - Carbon is group 4A element, it can share 4 valence electrons and form 4 covalent bonds.
Background image of page 6
7 Why this chapter? • Review ideas from general chemistry: atoms, bonds, molecular geometry
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
8 1.1 Atomic Structure Structure of an atom Positively charged nucleus (very dense, protons and neutrons) and small (10 -15 m) Negatively charged electrons are in a cloud (10 -10 m) around nucleus Diameter is about 2 × 10 -10 m (200 picometers (pm)) [the unit angstrom (Å) is 10 -10 m = 100 pm]
Background image of page 8
9 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass The atomic number ( Z ) is the number of protons in the atom's nucleus The mass number ( A ) is the number of protons plus neutrons All the atoms of a given element have the same atomic number Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers The atomic mass ( atomic weight ) of an element is the weighted average mass in atomic mass units (amu) of an element’s naturally occurring isotopes
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
10 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals Quantum mechanics : describes electron energies and locations by a wave equation Wave function solution of wave equation Each wave function is an orbital , ψ A plot of ψ 2 describes where electron most likely to be Electron cloud has no specific boundary so we show most probable area
Background image of page 10
11 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals for Electrons Four different kinds of orbitals for electrons based on those derived for a hydrogen atom Denoted s , p , d , and f s and p orbitals most important in organic and biological chemistry s orbitals: spherical, nucleus at center p orbitals: dumbbell-shaped, nucleus at middle d orbitals: elongated dumbbell-shaped, nucleus at center dumbbell shaped sphere shaped cloverleaf shaped
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
12
Background image of page 12
Image of page 13
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 46

chapter1 - 1. Structure and Bonding Based on McMurry's...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 13. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online