chap15-232-253

# 67mm 25mm2 but for large sites or in other difficult

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Unformatted text preview: , for example 7/1.04mm (6mm2) for the bus wire ring and the CT connections to it. The cable from the ring to the relay need not be of the larger section. When the reserve bar is split by bus section isolators and the two portions are protected as separate zones, it is necessary to common the bus wires by means of auxiliary contacts, thereby making these two zones into one when the section isolators are closed. 15.8.6 Summary of Practical Details This section provides a summary of practical considerations when implementing a high-impedance busbar protection scheme. 15.8.6.1 Designed stability level For normal circumstances, the stability level should be designed to correspond to the switchgear rating; even if the available short-circuit power in the system is much less than this figure, it can be expected that the system will be developed up to the limit of rating. Busbar P rotection needed for the check zone in bus-coupler and bussection breakers. 15.8.6.2 Current transformers Current transformers must have identical turns ratios, but a turns error of one in 400 is recognised as a reasonable manufacturing tolerance. Also, they should preferably be of similar design; where this is not possible the magnetising characteristics should be reasonably matched. Current transformers for use with high impedance protection schemes should meet the requirements of Class PX of IEC 60044-1. 15.8.6.3 Setting voltage The setting voltage is given by the equation Vs > If (RL + RCT) where: • 245 • Vs = relay circuit voltage setting If = steady-state through fault current RL = CT lead loop resistence RCT = CT secondary winding resistance • 15 • 15.8.6.4 Knee-point voltage of current transformers secondary condition is: This is given by the formula VP = VK ≥ 2Vs 15.8.6.5 Effective setting (secondary) ...Equation 15.8 VK = knee - point voltage IS = relay circuit current setting Any burden connected across the secondary will reduce the voltage, but the value cannot be deduced from a simple combination of burden and exciting impedances. IeS = CT excitation current at voltage setting n = number of CT’s in parallel For the primary fault setting multiply IR by the CT turns ratio. 15.8.6.6 Current transformer secondary rating It is clear from Equations 15.4 and 15.6 that it is advantageous to keep the secondary fault current low; this is done by making the CT turns ratio high. It is common practice to use current transformers with a secondary rating of 1A. Busbar P rotection VK Iek = exciting current at knee - point voltage where: It can be shown that there is an optimum turns ratio for the current transformers; this value depends on all the application parameters but is generally about 2000/1. Although a lower ratio, for instance 400/1, is often employed, the use of the optimum ratio can result in a considerable reduction in the physical size of the current transformers. 15.8.6.7 Peak voltage developed by current transformers Under in-zone fault conditions, a high impedance relay constitutes an excessive burden to the current transformers, leading to the development of a high voltage; the voltage waveform will be highly distorted but the peak value may be many times the nominal saturation voltage. When the burden resistance is finite although high, an approximate formula for the peak voltage is: V P = 2 2 V K (V F − V K I ek If = fault current IR = IS + nIeSIR 15 • If where: The effective setting of the relay is given by • 2 ) ...Equation 15.7 where: VP = peak voltage developed VK = knee-point voltage VF = prospective voltage in absence of saturation This formula does not hold for the open circuit condition and is inaccurate for very high burden resistances that approximate to an open circuit, because simplifying assumptions used in the derivation of the formula are not valid for the extreme condition. Another approach applicable to the open circuit These formulae are therefore to be regarded only as a guide to the possible peak voltage. With large current transformers, particularly those with a low secondary current rating, the voltage may be very high, above a suitable insulation voltage. The voltage can be limited without detriment to the scheme by connecting a ceramic non-linear resistor in parallel with the relay having a characteristic given by: V = CIβ where C is a constant depending on dimensions and β is a constant in the range 0.2-0.25. The current passed by the non-linear resistor at the relay voltage setting depends on the value of C; in order to keep the shunting effect to a minimum it is recommended to use a non-linear resistor with a value of C of 450 for relay voltages up to 175V and one with a value of C of 900 for setting voltages up to 325V. 15.8.6.8 High impedance relay Instantaneous attracted armature relays are used. Simple fast-operating relays would have a low safety factor constant in the stability equation, Equation 15.5, as discussed in Section 15.8.1. The performance is improved by series-tuning the relay coil, thereby making...
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## This note was uploaded on 02/18/2013 for the course EE 45 taught by Professor Kjald during the Spring '13 term at Aachen University of Applied Sciences.

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