Network protection automation guide security of both

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Unformatted text preview: k Protection & Automation Guide Security of both stability and operation is obtained by providing three independent channels (say X, Y and Z) whose outputs are arranged in a ‘two-out-of three’ voting arrangement, as shown in Figure 15.1. _ + X Y Y Z Z X Trip circuits Figure 15.1: Two-out-of-three principle 1 5 . 4 T Y P E S O F P R OT E C T I O N S Y S T E M A number of busbar protection systems have been devised: a. system protection used to cover busbars b. frame-earth protection c. differential protection d. phase comparison protection e. directional blocking protection Of these, (a) is suitable for small substations only, while (d) and (e) are obsolete. Detailed discussion of types (b) and (c) occupies most of this chapter. Busbar P rotection independence must be maintained throughout the secondary circuit. Early forms of biased differential protection for busbars, such as versions of 'Translay' protection and also a scheme using harmonic restraint, were superseded by unbiased high impedance differential protection. The relative simplicity of the latter, and more importantly the relative ease with which its performance can be calculated, have ensured its success up to the present day. But more recently the advances in semiconductor technology, coupled with a more pressing need to be able to accommodate CT's of unequal ratio, have led to the re-introduction of biased schemes, generally using static relay designs, particularly for the most extensive and onerous applications. Frame-earth protection systems have been in use for many years, mainly associated with smaller busbar protection schemes at distribution voltages and for metalclad busbars (e.g. SF6 insulated busbars). However, it has often been quite common for a unit protection scheme to be used in addition, to provide two separate means of fault detection. The different types of protection are described in the following sections. • 235 • • 15 • 1 5 . 5 S Y S T E M P R OT E C T I O N S C H E M E S System protection that includes overcurrent or distance systems will inherently give protection cover to the busbars. Overcurrent protection will only be applied to relatively simple distribution systems, or as a back-up protection, set to give a considerable time delay. Distance protection will provide cover for busbar faults with its second and possibly subsequent zones. In both cases the busbar protection obtained is slow and suitable only for limiting the consequential damage. G I Busbar P rotection 15 • 15.6.1 Single-Busbar Frame-Earth Protection This is purely an earth fault system and, in principle, involves simply measuring the fault current flowing from the switchgear frame to earth. A current transformer is mounted on the earthing conductor and is used to energize a simple instantaneous relay as shown in Figure 15.2. No other earth connections of any type, including incidental connections to structural steelwork are allowed. This requirement is so that: a. the principal earth connection and current transformer are not shunted, thereby raising the effective setting. An increased effective setting gives rise to the possibility of relay maloperation. This risk is small in practice > K Neutral check relay I > + Trip all circuit breaker Figure 15.2: Single zone frame-earth protection b. earth current flowing to a fault elsewhere on the system cannot flow into or out of the switchgear frame via two earth connections, as this might lead to a spurious operation 1 5 . 6 F R A M E - E A R T H P R OT E C T I O N ( H O WA R D P R OT E C T I O N ) • J Frame-earth fault relay The only exception is the case of a mesh-connected substation, in which the current transformers are located at the circuit breakers. Here, the busbars are included, in sections, in the individual zones of the main circuit protection, whether this is of unit type or not. In the special case when the current transformers are located on the line side of the mesh, the circuit protection will not cover the busbars in the instantaneous zone and separate busbar protection, known as mesh-corner protection, is generally used – see Section for details. Frame leakage protection has been extensively used in the past in many different situations. There are several variations of frame leakage schemes available, providing busbar protection schemes with different capabilities. The following sections schemes have thus been retained for historical and general reference purposes. A considerable number of schemes are still in service and frame leakage may provide an acceptable solution in particular circumstances. However, the need to insulate the switchboard frame and provide cable gland insulation and the availability of alternative schemes using numerical relays, has contributed to a decline in use of frame leakage systems. H The switchgear must be insulated as a whole, usually by standing it on concrete. Care must be taken that the foundation bolts do not touch the steel reinforcement; sufficient concrete must be cut away at each hole to permit grouting-in with no risk of touching metalwork. The ins...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2013 for the course EE 45 taught by Professor Kjald during the Spring '13 term at Aachen University of Applied Sciences.

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