The insulation to earth finally achieved will not be

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Unformatted text preview: ulation to earth finally achieved will not be high, a value of 10 ohms being satisfactory. When planning the earthing arrangements of a frameleakage scheme, the use of one common electrode for both the switchgear frame and the power system neutral point is preferred, because the fault path would otherwise include the two earthing electrodes in series. If either or both of these are of high resistance or have inadequate current carrying capacity, the fault current may be limited to such an extent that the protection equipment becomes inoperative. In addition, if the electrode earthing the switchgear frame is the offender, the potential of the frame may be raised to a dangerous value. The use of a common earthing electrode of adequate rating and low resistance ensures sufficient current for scheme operation and limits the rise in frame potential. When the system is resistance earthed, the earthing connection from the switchgear frame is made between the bottom of the earthing resistor and the earthing electrode. Figure 15.3 illustrates why a lower limit of 10 ohms insulation resistance between frame and earth is necessary. • 236 • Network Protection & Automation Guide Switchgear frame bonding bar Zone H Zone G Zone J L Generator M K Earth bar I1 Zone G frame leakage relay I1 + I2 I1 > I System earning resistor Zone H frame leakage relay I2 Frame insulation resistance to earth > I Earthing electrode resistance Trip relays Figure 15.3: Current distribution for external fault L1 K M Trip L Trip K Under external fault conditions, the current I1 flows through the frame-leakage current transformer. If the insulation resistance is too low, sufficient current may flow to operate the frame-leakage relay, and, as the check feature is unrestricted, this will also operate to complete the trip circuit. The earth resistance between the earthing electrode and true earth is seldom greater than 1Ω, so with 10Ω insulation resistance the current I1 is limited to 10% of the total earth fault current I1 and I2. For this reason, the recommended minimum setting for the scheme is about 30% of the minimum earth fault current. L2 Trip M Figure 15.4: Three zone frame earth scheme If it is inconvenient to insulate the section switch frame on one side, this switch may be included in that zone. It is then necessary to intertrip the other zone after approximately 0.5 seconds if a fault persists after the zone including the section switch has been tripped. This is illustrated in Figure 15.5. Insulation barrier All cable glands must be insulated, to prevent the circulation of spurious current through the frame and earthing system by any voltages induced in the cable sheath. Preferably, the gland insulation should be provided in two layers or stages, with an interposing layer of metal, to facilitate the testing of the gland insulation. A test level of 5kV from each side is suitable. Zone G Zone H K J L • Zone G Zone H 15.6.2 Frame-Earth Protection - Sectioned Busbars I Section 15.6.1 covered the basic requirements for a system to protect switchgear as a whole. When the busbar is divided into sections, these can be protected separately, provided the frame is also sub-divided, the sections mutually insulated, and each provided with a separate earth conductor, current transformer and relay. Ideally, the section switch should be treated as a separate zone, as shown in Figure 15.4, and provided with either a separate relay or two secondaries on the frame-leakage current transformer, with an arrangement to trip both adjacent zones. The individual zone relays trip their respective zone and the section switch. Network Protection & Automation Guide • 237 • Busbar P rotection Frame-leakage current transformer IF = I1 + I2 Insulation barriers Switchgear frame Outgoing feeder Trip relays J Trip J > I K1 K2 Trip K Figure 15.5: Frame-earth scheme: bus section breaker insulated on one side only > L Trip L 15 • For the above schemes to function it is necessary to have a least one infeed or earthed source of supply, and in the latter case it is essential that this source of supply be connected to the side of the switchboard not containing the section switch. Further, if possible, it is preferable that an earthed source of supply be provided on both sides of the switchboard, in order to ensure that any faults that may develop between the insulating barrier and the section switch will continue to be fed with fault current after the isolation of the first half of the switchboard, and thus allow the fault to be removed. Of the two arrangements, the first is the one normally recommended, since it provides instantaneous clearance of busbar faults on all sections of the switchboard. 15.6.3 Frame-Earth Scheme - Double Bus Substation It is not generally feasible to separately insulate the metal enclosures of the main and auxiliary busbars. Protection is therefore generally provided as for single bus installations, but with the additional feature that circuits connected to the auxiliary bus are tripped for all faults, as shown in Figure 15.6. as operation due to mechanic...
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