Accidental interference with the relay arising from a

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Unformatted text preview: interference with the relay, arising from a mistake during maintenance testing, may lead to operation 15.3.1 Speed Busbar protection is primarily concerned with: a. limitation of consequential damage b. removal of busbar faults in less time than could be achieved by back-up line protection, with the object of maintaining system stability Some early busbar protection schemes used a low impedance differential system having a relatively long operation time, of up to 0.5 seconds. The basis of most modern schemes is a differential system using either low impedance biased or high impedance unbiased relays capable of operating in a time of the order of one cycle at a very moderate multiple of fault setting. To this must be added the operating time of the tripping relays, but an overall tripping time of less than two cycles can be achieved. With high-speed circuit breakers, complete fault clearance may be obtained in approximately 0.1 seconds. When a frame-earth system is used, the operating speed is comparable. 15.3.2 Stability The stability of bus protection is of paramount importance. Bearing in mind the low rate of fault In order to maintain the high order of integrity needed for busbar protection, it is an almost invariable practice to make tripping depend on two independent measurements of fault quantities. Moreover, if the tripping of all the breakers within a zone is derived from common measuring relays, two separate elements must be operated at each stage to complete a tripping operation. Although not current practice, in many cases the relays are separated by about 2 metres so that no reasonable accidental mechanical interference to both relays simultaneously is possible. The two measurements may be made by two similar differential systems, or one differential system may be checked by a frame-earth system, by earth fault relays energised by current transformers in the transformer neutral-earth conductors or by overcurrent relays. Alternatively, a frame-earth system may be checked by earth fault relays. If two systems of the unit or other similar type are used, they should be energised by separate current transformers in the case of high impedance unbiased differential schemes. The duplicate ring CT cores may be mounted on a common primary conductor but • 234 • Network Protection & Automation Guide In the case of low impedance, biased differential schemes that cater for unequal ratio CT's, the scheme can be energised from either one or two separate sets of main current transformers. The criteria of double feature operation before tripping can be maintained by the provision of two sets of ratio matching interposing CT's per circuit. When multi-contact tripping relays are used, these are also duplicated, one being energised from each discriminating relay; the contacts of the tripping relay are then series-connected in pairs to provide tripping outputs. Separate tripping relays, each controlling one breaker only, are usually preferred. The importance of such relays is then no more than that of normal circuit protection, so no duplication is required at this stage. Not least among the advantages of using individual tripping relays is the simplification of trip circuit wiring, compared with taking all trip circuits associated with a given bus section through a common multi-contact tripping relay. In double busbar installations, a separate protection system is applied to each section of each busbar; an overall check system is provided, covering all sections of both busbars. The separate zones are arranged to overlap the busbar section switches, so that a fault on the section switch trips both the adjacent zones. This has sometimes been avoided in the past by giving the section switch a time advantage; the section switch is tripped first and the remaining breakers delayed by 0.5 seconds. Only the zone on the faulty side of the section switch will remain operated and trip, the other zone resetting and retaining that section in service. This gain, applicable only to very infrequent section switch faults, is obtained at the expense of seriously delaying the bus protection for all other faults. This practice is therefore not generally favoured. Some variations are dealt with later under the more detailed scheme descriptions. There are many combinations possible, but the essential principle is that no single accidental incident of a secondary nature shall be capable of causing an unnecessary trip of a bus section. Security against maloperation is only achieved by increasing the amount of equipment that is required to function to complete an operation; and this inevitably increases the statistical risk that a tripping operation due to a fault may fail. Such a failure, leaving aside the question of consequential damage, may result in disruption of the power system to an extent as great, or greater, than would be caused by an unwanted trip. The relative risk of failure of this kind may be slight, but it has been thought worthwhile in some instances to provide a guard in this respect as well. Networ...
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