chap15-232-253 - 15 Busbar Protection Introduction 15.1...

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Introduction 15.1 Busbar faults 15.2 Protection requirements 15.3 Types of protection system 15.4 System protection schemes 15.5 Frame-earth protection (Howard protection) 15.6 Differential protection principles 15.7 High impedance differential protection 15.8 Low impedance biased differential protection 15.9 Numerical busbar protection 15.10 References 15.11 15 Busbar Protection
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15.1 INTRODUCTION The protection scheme for a power system should cover the whole system against all probable types of fault. Unrestricted forms of line protection, such as overcurrent and distance systems, meet this requirement, although faults in the busbar zone are cleared only after some time delay. But if unit protection is applied to feeders and plant, the busbars are not inherently protected. Busbars have often been left without specific protection, for one or more of the following reasons: a. the busbars and switchgear have a high degree of reliability, to the point of being regarded as intrinsically safe b. it was feared that accidental operation of busbar protection might cause widespread dislocation of the power system, which, if not quickly cleared, would cause more loss than would the very infrequent actual bus faults c. it was hoped that system protection or back-up protection would provide sufficient bus protection if needed It is true that the risk of a fault occurring on modern metal-clad gear is very small, but it cannot be entirely ignored. However, the damage resulting from one uncleared fault, because of the concentration of fault MVA, may be very extensive indeed, up to the complete loss of the station by fire. Serious damage to or destruction of the installation would probably result in widespread and prolonged supply interruption. Finally, system protection will frequently not provide the cover required. Such protection may be good enough for small distribution substations, but not for important stations. Even if distance protection is applied to all feeders, the busbar will lie in the second zone of all the distance protections, so a bus fault will be cleared relatively slowly, and the resultant duration of the voltage dip imposed on the rest of the system may not be tolerable. With outdoor switchgear the case is less clear since, although the likelihood of a fault is higher, the risk of widespread damage resulting is much less. In general then, busbar protection is required when the system protection does not cover the busbars, or when, in order 15 Busbar Protection Network Protection & Automation Guide • 233 •
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to maintain power system stability, high-speed fault clearance is necessary. Unit busbar protection provides this, with the further advantage that if the busbars are sectionalised, one section only need be isolated to clear a fault. The case for unit busbar protection is in fact strongest when there is sectionalisation.
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chap15-232-253 - 15 Busbar Protection Introduction 15.1...

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