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REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 1 Basic types of correctional supervision and control (prison/jail/probation/parole) The three approaches to criminal justice/public safety (crime control, due process, rehabilitation) and critiques of those approaches- Due Process stresses the possibility of error in the stages leading to trial, it emphasizes the need to protect procedural rights even if this prevents the legal system from operating with maximum efficiency. The model assumes that justice is better served if everyone gets his or her fair day in court; while it is unfortunate if a few guilty people go free, this outweighs the risk of locking up any innocents. Crime control emphasizes efficiency and is based on the view that the most important function of the criminal justice process is repression of criminal conduct. The model assumes that it is acceptable to suspend individual rights or perhaps overlook technicalities in procedure in the interest of protecting society from criminal behavior. The rehabilitation philosophy rests on the premise that people who commit crimes have identifiable reason for doing so and that these can be discovered, addressed, and altered. Yet the effiecitioncy has been seriously questioned. American Criminal Justice System (Criminal Justice as a System), including modern history, major institutional actors (legislative/executive/corrections), basic statistics discussed in class Types of justice systems (adversarial, inquisitorial, etc.)- inquisitorial system -under this system the accused person was considered guilty until proven innocent. Adversary system is which the accused person is presumed to be innocent and the burden of proof is placed on the court. The judge is an impartial arbiter or referee between adversarie-the prosecution and defense. Due process implies the administration of laws that do not violate individual rights. Indeterminate Sentences-the most common type, which has a fixed minimum and a fixed maximum term for incarceration, rather than a definite period. Determinate sentences-Known as the “flat”, “fixed”, or “straight” sentences, it has no set minimum or maximum but, rather, a fixed period of time. Definite sentences-one having a fixed period of time with no reduction by parole. Intermittent sentence is a term to be served on certain days or periods of days specified by the court. Mandatory sentence has been a subject of extensive discussion since the middle of the 1970. It limit judicial discretion, they are penal code provisions that require the judge to sentence individuals convicted of certain crimes to prison terms of a specified length. Environmental, Situational and Opportunity Explanations of Crime
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